Higher Education and demographic situation have some interactive activities and mutual connection when viewed from the standpoint of the overall socio-economic status of a nation. Based on the current status and population data in our country and also on the appropriate research based on the data from Bureau of Statistics and the Employment Institute, there is a need for the professional scientific approach to this issue. Concerns for the demographic situation of the Croatian people in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is the subject of this paper, is pointing to the need of the original action of all the factors that can and should affect on the reduction of emigration of the most valuable population of a nation.
When it comes to higher education, there is primarily a need to implement serious reform that includes reducing the number of social studies and the pedagogical sciences in favor of technical and biotechnical sciences which today account deficit. Furthermore, there should be a serious strategy to determine the number of colleges and universities and compare that strategy with the strategy of the general social development and within that context assess the needs for the private study with strict adherence to the criteria for the establishment of the higher education institutions, both state and private. The plans and programs of study must undergo a strict audit by giving the final evaluation of the Bologna process study that is apparently very doubtful. A solid and detailed analysis should give us valid results. The problem of financing the study was an open question and there are chaotic relationships and relations, since now it turns out that 80% of studies is financed by the parents, not by the state, which has negative consequences for determining quotas and enrollment structure. It could be said that the state has very little influence in these extremely important social activities in which the responsibility of both is minimized.
With a good selection, scope and structure of the study, unemployment of highly educated people will be reduced to a smaller rate, and that also means the reduction of the departure of educated personnel to other countries. In addition, stimulating employment even if for the fixed time period should be introduced, especially in the public sector, as well as support stimulating conditions and self-employment in the private sector. In our environment, the Federation, especially in the area of Herzegovina, there are a number of natural resources that present serious basis for the production and application of the new technologies but still are not exploited.