20 godina od razbijanja SFRJ
20 Years Since the Breaking - Up of the SFRY
Contributor(s): Branislava Knežić (Editor), Jovan Ćirić (Editor)
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences, Politics, History, Political Sciences, Political history, Social history, Recent History (1900 till today), International relations/trade, Comparative politics, Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations, Geopolitics, Politics of History/Memory
Published by: Institut za uporedno pravo
- Print-ISBN-13: 978-86-80059-73-0
- Page Count: 329
- Publication Year: 2011
- Language: Russian, Serbian
Постмодерни Макијавелизам: Запад и Срби, 1991-2011.
(Postmodern Machiavellian: West and Serbs, 1991-2011)
- Author(s):Srđa Trifković
- Subject(s):Political history, International relations/trade, Comparative politics, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations
- Page Range:13-31
- No. of Pages:19
- Keywords:Basic principles of western civilization; Anti-Christianity in nowdays western world; Serbian idiosyncrasy; patology of post-modern Western world; Kosovo; Republic of Srpska
- Summary/Abstract:The problem of the relation of the Western World towards Serbs in the past two decades- refering not only to the problems of Kosovo and Metohia and the future of Republic of Srpska, the Hague or EU integrations, but also to the relation at more complex level- is not a result of Serbian idiosyncrasy, which do not match with clearly defined western principles. On the contrary, this problem is an outcome of some sort of the patology of postmodern Western world, that systematically deviates from those principles.
Став Срба према мировним плaновима из прве половине 90-их година XX века
(The Attitude of Serbs to Peacemaking Plans in the Ninties)
- Author(s):Jelena Guskova
- Subject(s):Governance, Diplomatic history, Political history, International relations/trade, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations
- Page Range:33-57
- No. of Pages:25
- Keywords:Balkan conflictt; negotiations; Peace initiatives; Carrington’s plan; Vance/Owen peace plan;Serbian attitude
- Summary/Abstract:A number of organizations and institutions during five years take a part in regulating Balkans conflict, between them: EU, UN, OSCE, etc. The author analyzes basic stages in the process of negotiations, especially the Carrington’s plan, Vance-Owen peace plan, conferences in London and Dayton. The author focused special attention on the attitude of Serbs in these negotiations. The conclusion is that the representatives of the negotiation institutions did not were objective and were biased to the detriment of Serbs? interests. Results of Balkans crisis were strengthens of the power in regulation of conflicts, and leading role at applying a force have NATO and USA.
Позиция Сербов по планам урегулирования в первой половине 90-х гг. ХХ в.
(The Serbs' Position on Settlement Plans in the First Half of the 90s. XX Century.)
- Author(s):Jelena Guskova
- Subject(s):Political history, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations
- Page Range:59-83
- No. of Pages:25
- Summary/Abstract:В урегулировании балканского конфликта принимали участие многочисленные международные организации и институты. Среди них пальма первенства принадлежит ЕС. Когда усилия ЕС стали пробуксовывать, ему на подмогу пришла ООН, создав Международную конференцию по бывшей Югославии (ЕС+ООН), послав миротворческие силы в Хорватию, Македонию, Боснию и Герцеговину. В свою очередь большинство своих функций в 1995 г. ООН передала НАТО. СБСЕ (ОБСЕ) принимал несколько резолюций и документов по ситуации в бывшей Югославии, но так и не смог стать действенной силой в разрешении кризиса, на чём настаивала, в частности, Россия.
Samoskrivljena nezrelost elite vlasti u korist povijesne nesreće vlastitih naroda
(Self-Blamed Immaturity of Governing Elite in Favour of their Own Nation Historical Misfortune)
- Author(s):Svetozar Livada
- Subject(s):Political Philosophy, Governance
- Page Range:85-104
- No. of Pages:20
- Keywords:ethnic cleaning; war of blood and soil; burned country; irrational destruction and civil war
- Summary/Abstract:The war is a crime, itself. According to some authors, have been around 1400 wars, until now. Only members of human race lead wars. Instead eating members of their species, they are killing them. Analyzing empirical nature of the war , i found that we are talking about civil war. This meaning is proved by long term consequences of war of blood and soil, burned country, the destruction of old cemeteries. The war has been built by the ethnic cleansing which shows the tribal reasoning.
Разбиjање друге Југославиjе увод у „хуманитарне“ интервенциjе
(Breakup of the Second Yugoslavia as an Introduction to the „Humanitarian“ Interventions)
- Author(s):Slobodan Vuković
- Subject(s):International relations/trade, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations, Geopolitics
- Page Range:105-131
- No. of Pages:27
- Keywords:Yugoslavia; Serbia; Germany; the United States of America; media; dissolution; " humanitarian" interventions
- Summary/Abstract:In presented paper, author defends the thesis that the main starter in the dissolution of Yugoslavia was Germany, guided by revanchism and supported by Austria and Vatican. That was one of the main reasons for systematic anti- Serbian campaign in German and Austrian media, which had an aim to lay blame upon Serbia for the contemporary situation. Guided by personal interest, the United States of America joined this campaign, hoping to achieve one goal- participation in remaking of European geostrategic area in the period after the Cold War. In order to accomplish this, the right to " humanitarian" intervantions had to be inaugurated.
Kada je počelo razbijanje SFRJ?
(When Did the Break-Up of Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia Start?)
- Author(s):Nikola Popović
- Subject(s):Political history, Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Politics of History/Memory
- Page Range:133-143
- No. of Pages:11
- Keywords:breaking up of the state; nationalism; bureacreacy; the level of te power; the Constitution
- Summary/Abstract:The break-up of Yugoslavia begun during the early 60sat the same time when the bureaucracies of individual federal units started to asume the increased power. It was done to detriment of the federal structure. The process was folowed by the constantaccusations levelled against the Republic of Serbia and the Serbean League of Communists as the pillars of centralism, unitarism and Great Serbian hegemonism. The increase of the of the extent ow power od the federal units (republican etatism) led to the federalization of the League of the Communists of Yugoslavia, while the so-called „national key“ was aplied in te proces of formation of the entire federal structure. The economic life of individual federal units became more and more closed and duplicated, while the interests of Yugoslavia in general were neglected.Te ultimate result of such policy was passing of the Federal Constitution on February 21, 1974.The explanation for this step was that Federal Yugoslavia meant in fact an agreement between republics and autonomous provincies. When it became urgent to defend Yugoslavia in March of 1991., the members of the Federal Presidency were unable to reach such an agreement.Yugoslavia was set up of the road of extinction.
Апорија Устава СФРЈ од 1974. године
(Aporia of the Yugoslav Constitution from 1974.)
- Author(s):Miroslav Svirčević
- Subject(s):History of Law, Constitutional Law, Political history, Politics and law, Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:145-158
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:Yugoslav Constitution from 1974. Yugoslavia; Basic politics for Yugoslavia; Great Britain: breakingup of Yugoslavia
- Summary/Abstract:This paper focuses on the origins and consequences of the Constitution of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of 1974, which essentially established confederal structure of the state with dominant position of the federal republics and autonomous provinces, and very weak position of the federal government. This Constitution, predominantly based on communist ideology, directly led to disintegration of Yugoslavia and bloody civil wars in the last decade of 20th century. However, this Constitution also had a foreign source: British policy towards Yugoslavia 1941–1944 in the period when Great Britain decided to support pro-communist movement of resistance in Yugoslavia led by Josip Broz Tito. The British agents for special operations (SOE) issued a document entitled Basis Policy for Yugoslavia of 11st April 1943, which contained political principles for legal-political order of the post-war Yugoslav state. These principles were very similar to the principles of the communist Yugoslav constitutionality, especially with the Constitution of 1974. The author concludes that Western powers (USA, Great Britain) strongly influenced the constitutional structure of Yugoslavia, predominantly regarding the relations between socialist republics and autonomous provinces.
Neki unutrašnji i međunarodni aspekti krize i raspada Jugoslavije
(Some of the National and International Aspects of the Crisis and Breakup of Yugoslavia)
- Author(s):David Dašić
- Subject(s):Political history, International relations/trade, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Politics of History/Memory
- Page Range:159-182
- No. of Pages:24
- Keywords:Dissolution of Communist League; Baker’s visit to Yugoslavia; Badenter Arbitration; Deyton agreement
- Summary/Abstract:Yugoslavia after the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980. Implications of 1974 Constitution. Ante Marković Program. Rise of Slobdan Milošević. Dissolution of Communist League in 1990. Baker`s visit in 1991. Secession of Slovenia and Croatia. Outbreak of the war. Brijuni Agreement. Carrington Plan. Badenter Arbitration Commission. Secession of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. UNPROFOR. International recognition of Yugoslav republics. Foundation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. International sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. The question of international continuity of the FR Yugoslavia. Peacekeeping initiatives of international community in the period 1992- 1995( Vance Plan, Cutiller Plan, Vance- Owen Plan, OwenStoltenberg Plan, Contact Group Plan, Washington Agreement, Plan Z-4). Croatian military operations Flash and Storm. Deyton Agreement. Erdut Agreement. Evaluation of the features of the war in Yugoslavia.
(The First Hit (Who Hit First?))
- Author(s):Jovan Ćirić
- Subject(s):Political history, Social history, WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Inter-Ethnic Relations, Politics of History/Memory
- Page Range:183-212
- No. of Pages:30
- Keywords:the relation victim-offender; the history; memories; fear; first hit; formr Yugoslavia
- Summary/Abstract:If you want to be a justfull judge, you must take in consideration all the circumstances of one case. You have to try to answer on the question who hit first? You must take in consideration the whole history of the relation between the person who commited the crime and the victim. Very of ten, it is not so easy to answer who the real victim is? Is it a wife who was molested for many years, and at the end she decided to resolve that situation and killed her husband? Or it is a husband who was killed? One criminal case, especially when it was happened inside a familly, sometimes could be very complicated. In the civil war, like the war in former Yugoslavia was, the story is very similar, at least, it was also like a crime in one family. To understand, the whole story about Yugoslav wars, to judge on a justfull way, it is necessary to take in consideration one very complicated history of the relations, first of all between Serbs and Croats. Understanding the 1991 is impossible without understanding 1941, when Croatian nationalsts, faschists, Ustashas made a terrible genocide against Serbs. In that sense the author of this article first cited what foreigners, officials said about that genocide against Serbs. Even Germans and Italians were schoked by what they have seen in the concentration camp of Jasenovac and in many vilages in Croatia and Bosnia, where Serbs were brutally killed by Croatians, by Ustasha. Serbs remembered very well what has happened during II World War and they were afraid that their neighbors, Croats would repeat all of that. The autor of this article thinks that many things during nineties happened because of that fear It was impossible for Serbs to forget the great crime, (magnum crimen). They were ready to forgive, but not to forget, and that was the most important origin of many things that has happened in the war in former of Yugoslavia. The author thinks that Serbs would accept the seccesion of Croatia in some other circumstances, but they had terrible experience, they knew what has happened before. Almost all Serbs that lived in Croatia had some cousin who was killed by Ustasha (Croats). Such a memory was an unbereable load for Serbs. So, the author of this article thinks that someone who wants to judge about the war and disintegration of former Yugolsvia, must have in mind that history, those memories and those experiences and fears. In that sense, like in evereday life, it is important question who hit first?
Na rođačkoj meti
(On Cousin`S Target)
- Author(s):Branislava Knežić
- Subject(s):Victimology, Inter-Ethnic Relations
- Page Range:213-226
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:disintegration of SFRY; cousin`s target; mixed marriages; cousin`s victims
- Summary/Abstract:This text is about victims, ordinary people, who were, in the whirlpool of SFRY disintegration war, on the target of their cousins only because they were of different ethnicity or religion. It is known that everybody loses on that target, there is no winners. One side is ruined and the other, as expected, ashamed after war sobering up. No one hits so treacherously and so violent but the one who knows us good and who is close to us. That is the reason that the wounds heals so slowly. Unscrupulous politicking and crime propagation “in the name of nation and religion” were involved in this most delicate human relations. The scientific research which are missing, could confront us with the longterm tragic consequences of broken marriages, broken and damaged cousins and in-laws relationships.
Međunarodnopravni kontinuitet na teritoriji Jugoslavije u periodu od 1941.-1945. i nakon Drugog svetskog rata
Međunarodnopravni kontinuitet na teritoriji Jugoslavije u periodu od 1941.-1945. i nakon Drugog svetskog rata
(International Legal Continuity in the Territory of Yugoslavia in the Period 1941-1945 and After the World War Ii)
- Author(s):Vladimir Ž. Čolović
- Subject(s):Political history, WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Politics and Identity
- Page Range:227-252
- No. of Pages:26
- Keywords:state; continuity; identity; succession; Yugoslavia; ISC (Independent State of Croatia); international treaty
- Summary/Abstract:The issue of international legal continuity is, in Yugoslavia, raised several times during its lifetime. The international legal continuity assumes a continuation of the same state after the key or crucial events in that country. This institute is connected with the change of sovereignty in a country, as well as with notions of identity and the succession of states. The international legal continuity, as a concept, is similar to the concept of state identity, while different from the succession. However, we can not talk about international legal continuity, not to mention the succession. The paper discusses the international legal continuity of Yugoslavia during World War II, as well as the continuity of the Federal People Republic of Yugoslavia in relation to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Special attention is paid to the status of the Independent State of Croatia, which was created on the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during the Second World War. In particular, it defines the status of international agreements in these conditions. The general rule is that international treaties of the state that previously existed, does not transfer automatically to the new state. Also, the paper lists some examples from the other states in the conditions of the changes of sovereignty. Finally, the author assesses the continuity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in relation to SFRY.
Tranzicija, mladi i kriminalitet
(Transition, Youth and Crime)
- Author(s):Oliver Bačanović, Nataša Jovanova
- Subject(s):Social differentiation, Criminology, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010)
- Page Range:253-273
- No. of Pages:21
- Keywords:transition; countries in transition; youth; juvenile crime; Republic of Macedonia
- Summary/Abstract:Accepting the notion of understanding the transition like a combination of deep political, legal, economical and social change within society, with purpose for its fundamental transformation, which can cause dramatic changes, in this paper we start from the premise that transition processes are not only positive but also have negative side (which among other things, expressed through juvenile crime). In this sense, in this paper we have tried to show (description level) the link between the process of transition (specific for the so-called countries in transition), and juvenile crime, whose carriers are representatives of the population which, regarding its main characteristic- age, more specificaly minority, and other biopsycho-social characteristics, belongs to vulnerable groups. In the context of the object and purpose of this paper, are examined this following issues: the concept of transition, a brief overview of the situation in Macedonia after "decomposition of SFRY", transition as a determinant of phenomenology of crime, the impact of transition on young population, and some phenomenological characteristics of juvenile crime in our country during the period of transition. Finally, we suggest juvenile crime to be subject of further deeper researches that will identify not only the phenomenological characteristics of this type of crime, but also to provide enough relevant data that will give answer to the more complex question of the etiology of crime based on objectively determined influence of transition.
Stanje srpske privrede u poređenju sa bivšim republikama dvadeset godina nakon raspada SFRJ
(Economic Position of Serbia in Comparison to the Economies of Other Former Republics Two Decades After the Collapse of SFRY)
- Author(s):Isidora Beraha, Sonja Đuričin
- Subject(s):National Economy, Economic history, Political economy, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today)
- Page Range:275-303
- No. of Pages:29
- Keywords:economic trends; SFRY; transition; gross domestic product; external debt; foreign direct investments; unemployment; foreign trade deficit; comparative analysis
- Summary/Abstract:The main objective of the paper is to analyze the economic position of Serbia i. e. to evaluate the current level of development of the Serbian economy in comparison to the economies of the former Yugoslav republics. It is evident that two decades after the collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) former republics are facing rather inconvenient economic trends, of which the most important are unsatisfactory level of actual Gross domestic product (GDP), high unemployment and foreign trade deficits, insufficient foreign direct investments (FDI) and growing indebtedness. Bearing in mind that the above economic trends are caused by different levels of economic development of the individual republics, different political and economic circumstances as well as the dynamics and the way they implemented a comprehensive reform of economic and political life in order to shift from a centrally planned to a market based economy and integrate into the European Union (EU), paper reviews the historical events that followed the disintegration of SFRY and the basic characteristics of the transition of former Yugoslav republics.
Sistem sporta u državama bivše SFRJ
(Sports Systems of the States Derived from the Former Yugoslavia)
- Author(s):Dejan Šuput
- Subject(s):Governance, Sports Studies
- Page Range:305-329
- No. of Pages:25
- Keywords:sport; state; Law on sport; results; development
- Summary/Abstract:In this article, the author presents the state and features of the sports systems in states arised from the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and explains the concequences that disappearance of the federal state, the civil war and creation of the small national states caused to its sports development and sports results achieved during the past twenty years. Besides, the paper summarizes the main problems of national sports systems and sorts leagues of above mentioned states and criticize their great expectations from the future process of ownership transformation of sport organizations. It is noted that a colloquial term ’’privatization in sport’’, commonly used in professional and political debates in those countries, does not conform to the essence of the process it refers to in such debates. The concluding part of the paper comprises allegations that during the past twenty years, newly established national states arised from the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not very successful in the development of their sports systems. Those allegations have been proved by listing of various facts and examples presenting the results achieved by the national sports teams of that states.