The Migrations of Hungarian National Group during the Second World War and in the Post-War Period in Croatia Cover Image

Migracije mađarskog stanovništva na hrvatskom području tijekom drugog svjetskog rata i neposredno poslije
The Migrations of Hungarian National Group during the Second World War and in the Post-War Period in Croatia

Author(s): Marica Karakas Obradov
Subject(s): History
Published by: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije
Keywords: Second World War; „people’s democracy“; Independent State of Croatia; Croatia; Hungarians; migrations; settlements; evacuations; refugees; deportations

Summary/Abstract: Exchange of population had been a permanent subject of discussions between Independent State of Croatia and Hungary . However , the exchange was made impossible from the beginning because of the annexation of Medjimurje to Hungary. Both countries were trying to improve the position of the Hungarians in the NDH and of the Croats in Hungarian territory , especially in Medjimurje and Bačka. In December 1941, the fi rst requests were made for emigration of the Hungarians from north-east Bosnia because of the war danger and partisan attacks. This was accomplished in the spring of 1942. As a counter-favor the Hungarians allowed the Croats, who were leaving or were deported from the Hungarian territory, to take their personal belongings with them. Hungarian citizens in the Croatian territory , who were primary rural, were trying to be neutral and were willing to cooperate with the People’ s Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments/Y ugoslav Army by providing food supplies. However, as Hungarians were „citizens of the enemy country“, the partisans usually required mobilization of men or forced them to move out without any belongings. The communist government of Yugoslavia was more fl exible towards the Hungarians than towards the Germans, especially when it came to repatriation, because the Germans were treated as more responsible in the Second World W ar. Milder treatment of the Hungarians served also as the Yugoslav contribution, boosted by the USSR, to the establishment of the communist Hungary. It was also important that the Hungarians, unlike the Germans, were mostly smallholders or poor . The Hungarians who stayed in Croatia shared the destiny of the Croats and others in later migrations. In spite of the non-familiar language, the Hungarians have partly assimilated to the majority people, which was also caused by mixed marriages.

  • Issue Year: 2012
  • Issue No: 1
  • Page Range: 86-104
  • Page Count: 19
  • Language: Croatian