Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Cover Image

Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs

Publishing House: Institute for Research and European Studies - Bitola
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences, Christian Theology and Religion, Politics, History, Anthropology, Philosophy, Social Sciences, Economy, Gender Studies, Education, Law, Constitution, Jurisprudence, Media studies, Essay|Book Review |Scientific Life, Geography, Regional studies, National Economy, Supranational / Global Economy, Business Economy / Management, Micro-Economics, Energy and Environmental Studies, Marxist economics, Human Geography, History of Law, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, Civil Law, International Law, Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Law and Transitional Justice, History of Philosophy, Philosophical Traditions, Ethics / Practical Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Social Philosophy, Political Theory, Political Sciences, Civil Society, Governance, Public Administration, Public Law, Communication studies, Sociology, Comparative history, Diplomatic history, Economic history, Ethnohistory, History of ideas, Military history, Political history, Social history, Gender history, Theology and Religion, Islam studies, Comparative Studies of Religion, Religion and science , German Idealism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, Structuralism and Post-Structuralism, Marxism, Philosophy of Religion, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Law, Labor relations, Economic policy, Environmental and Energy policy, Government/Political systems, International relations/trade, Security and defense, Military policy, Electoral systems, Welfare systems, Developing nations, Political behavior, Political economy, Political psychology, Politics and law, Politics and communication, Politics and religion, Politics and society, History and theory of political science, Methodology and research technology, Comparative politics, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Theory of Communication, Adult Education, Higher Education , History of Education, Educational Psychology, State/Government and Education, Social psychology and group interaction, History and theory of sociology, Methodology and research technology, Applied Sociology, Social development, Social differentiation, Social Theory, Crowd Psychology: Mass phenomena and political interactions, Criminology, Studies in violence and power, Health and medicine and law, Family and social welfare, Policy, planning, forecast and speculation, Demography and human biology, Human Ecology, Nationalism Studies, Penology, Social Informatics, Political Ecology, Welfare services, Economic development, Environmental interactions, History of Islam, Contemporary Islamic Thought, Political Essay, Societal Essay, Editorial, Scientific Life, Conference Report, Book-Review, Law on Economics, Migration Studies, Inter-Ethnic Relations, EU-Accession / EU-DEvelopment, Financial Markets, Public Finances, Fiscal Politics / Budgeting, Ethnic Minorities Studies, Phenomenology, Marketing / Advertising, Tourism, Canon Law / Church Law, Social Norms / Social Control, Penal Policy, Human Resources in Economy, ICT Information and Communications Technologies, Business Ethics, Sociology of Politics, Globalization, Inclusive Education / Inclusion, Socio-Economic Research, Sociology of Education, Philosophy of Law, EU-Legislation, Sociology of Religion, Sociology of Law, Geopolitics, History of Religion, Ontology, Philosophy of History, Politics of History/Memory, Politics and Identity, Identity of Collectives, Corruption - Transparency - Anti-Corruption, Peace and Conflict Studies, Rhetoric, Maritime Law, Commercial Law, Transport / Logistics, Court case, Sharia Law, Asylum, Refugees, Migration as Policy-fields, Comparative Law, Administrative Law, Labour and Social Security Law
Frequency: irregular and other
Print ISSN: 1857-9760
Online-ISSN: 1857-9760
Status: Active

  • 2016
  • 2017
  • 2018
  • 2019
  • 2020
  • 2021
  • 2022
  • 2023
  • Issue No. 03/I
  • Issue No. 1/II
  • Issue No. 2/II
  • Issue No. Suppl./I
  • Issue No. 03/II
  • Issue No. 1/III
  • Issue No. 2/III
  • Issue No. Suppl./III
  • Issue No. 03/III
  • Issue No. 1/IV
  • Issue No. 2/IV
  • Issue No. 3/IV
  • Issue No. 1/V
  • Issue No. 2/V
  • Issue No. 03/V
  • Issue No. 03/V
  • Issue No. 1/6
  • Issue No. 2/6
  • Issue No. Suppl./6
  • Issue No. 03/6
  • Issue No. 1/7
  • Issue No. 2/7
  • Issue No. 3/7
  • Issue No. Supp. 1/7
  • Issue No. 1/8
  • Issue No. 2/8
  • Issue No. 3/8
  • Issue No. 1/9
  • Issue No. 2/9
  • Issue No. 3/9
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Articles list
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Short Description

Journal of Liberty and International Affairs is a triannual (3 issues per year), open-access and internationally peer-reviewed journal devoted to the study of liberty and international affairs, published by the Institute for Research and European Studies - Bitola. The journal also encourages the publication of occasional Special Issues. It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The primary intention is to offer academic and public debate taking into account the following topics: Individual liberty; Libertarianism; Liberalism; Objectivism; Capitalism; Anarchism; Democracy; Political Anthropology; International relations and diplomacy; Public and private international law; Geopolitics; Nationalism; Multilateralism; Ideology; Politics and religion; Neo-Ottomanism; Yugosphere; Propaganda; Regional cooperation; European federalism; EU law and politics; European economic governance; EU foreign and security policy; Competitive federalism; Comparative constitutional law; Human rights and liberties; Gender studies; Emerging powers (BRICS; Russia; China; India etc.); Transatlantic relations and other related topics, that contribute to the understanding of liberty and international affairs from different angles. It is important to emphasize, that this journal devotes special attention to Europe / EU as a crucial factor in contemporary international affairs. Also, the journal editorial team encourages the submissions that treat Balkan issues, especially the attitude of the Balkan countries towards the European integration, and their place within the new international context.


Journal of Liberty and International Affairs is identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) and each article carries a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) which is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The publisher and the journal have registered a deposit policy with SHERPA/RoMEO. All the articles are freely available online upon publication. They are published under the liberal Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY). Each article is archived in SSOAR with an assigned URN (Unique Resource Name), which is a persistent identifier (PID) that enables unequivocal and permanent access to the publication and its scientific citation. The author holds the copyright and retains publishing rights without restrictions. Articles that have been accepted, will be published on the website of the journal and may be distributed to other online repositories or the author’s pages on In order to provide visibility of the published work, the journal is indexed and abstracted in multiple academic repositories and search engines. The journal editors share announcements, news, and related articles about the topic of the journal on Facebook.


Journal of Liberty and International Affairs is a peer-reviewed journal, all articles being examined by researchers with credentials in the article's field of study before they are published. Articles are subjects to initial editorial screening and anonymous peer-review by two reviewers who will be selected by the editors. This journal operates a closed peer-review process, meaning that reviewers will not know author details and will themselves remain anonymous to the author. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs follows double-blind peer-review policy strictly.


The publisher and journal have a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. All articles will be checked by PlagScan before being sent to the reviewers. If the case of plagiarism or duplication is detected, the article will be immediately rejected. If plagiarism or duplication is detected after publication of the article, the journal editors have the right to issue a correction or retract the published article. Any attempts for plagiarism will be strictly sanctioned by the journal editors.


Journal of Liberty and International Affairs is a fully open access journal, which means that all articles are freely available, ensuring maximum, worldwide dissemination of content, in exchange for an article publication fee. The journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Published material can be re-used without obtaining permission as long as a correct citation to the original publication is given.


Editorial board

Goran Ilik, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia

Managing Editors:
Mladen Karadjoski, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Artur Adamczyk, PhD, Centre for Europe, University of Warsaw, Poland
Angelo Viglianisi Ferraro, PhD, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Italy

Technical Editor and IT Consultant:
Aleksandar Kotevski, PhD

PR Consultant:
Aleksandar Georgiev, MA

Language Redaction:
Bojan Gruevski, MA

Associate Editors:
Oxana Karnaukhova, PhD, Southern Federal University, Russian Federation
Judithanne Scourfield McLauchlan, PhD, The University of South Florida St. Petersburg, USA
Goran Bandov, PhD, Dag Hammarskjold University, Croatia
Deilton Ribeiro Brasil, PhD, University of Itaúna, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Dijana Stojanovic - Djordjevic, PhD, Independent Researcher, North Macedonia
Valeri Modebadze, PhD, Caucasus International University, Georgia
Vesna Poposka, PhD, International Vision University, North Macedonia
Masataka Nakauchi, PhD, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University, Japan
Marko Babic, PhD, Institute of European Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland
Elena Temelkovska - Anevska, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Angelina Stanojoska, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Aslam Khan, PhD, Department of Political Science, Yobe State University, Nigeria
Ice Ilijevski, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Eloi Martins Senhoras, PhD, Federal University of Roraima (UFRR), Brazil
Natalia Cuglesan, PhD, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Romania


Anthony M. Gould, PhD, Laval University, Canada
Tara Smith, PhD, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Ezio Benedetti, PhD, Department of Social and Political Studies, University of Trieste, Italy
Ioan Horga, PhD, University of Oradea, Romania
Zhiqun Zhu, PhD, Bucknell University, USA
Vladimir Ortakovski, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Helmut Kury, PhD, University of Freiburg, Germany
Hans-Juergen Zahorka, Assessor iuris, LIBERTAS - European Institute GmbH, Germany
Inan Ruma, PhD, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
Gordana Dobrijevic, PhD, Singidunum University in Belgrade, Serbia
Cristina-Maria Dogot, PhD, University of Oradea, Romania
Marija Kostic, PhD, Singidunum University in Belgrade, Serbia
Isabel David, PhD, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Remenyi Peter, PhD, University of Pecs, Hungary
Slavejko Sasajkovski, PhD, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia
Muhamed Ali, PhD, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Przemyslaw Biskup, PhD, Polish Institute of International Affairs, Poland
Hitesh Gupta, PhD, SPEAK Foundation, India
Skip Worden, PhD, Independent Researcher, USA
Mehmet Sahin, PhD, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey
Christian Ruggiero, PhD, Department of Communication and Social Research in Sapienza University, Italy
Emel Elif Tugdar, PhD, University of Kurdistan Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
Zoran Lutovac, PhD, Institute of Social Sciences, Serbia
Gloria Esteban de la Rosa, PhD, University of Jaen, Spain
Habib Kazzi, PhD, Lebanese University, Lebanon
Sergii Burlutskyi, PhD, Donbass State Machine-building University, Ukraine
Anmol Mukhia, PhD, Jilin University, PR China
Pramod Jaiswal, PhD, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi, India
Polonca Kovac, PhD, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Russell Foster, PhD, European Studies at the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Irvin Faniko, PhD, Academy of Security, Albania
Fabio Ratto Trabucco, PhD, Venetian University, Italy
Laura Maria Stanila, PhD, West University of Timisoara, Romania
Eyal Lewin, PhD, Ariel University, Israel
Tayeb Boutbouqalt, PhD, University of Abdel Malek Essaadi, Morocco
Hai Hong Nguyen, PhD, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Ferdinand T. Abocejo, PhD, Eastern Visayas State University Tacloban, Philippines
Gergana Dimova, PhD, University of Winchester, United Kingdom
Iveta Reinholde, PhD, University of Latvia, Latvia
Nicolas Nord, PhD, University of Strasbourg, France
Bashar H. Malkawi, PhD, James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona, USA
Carla Piffer, PhD, University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Brazil
Paiman Ahmad, PhD, Department of Law, University of Raparin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Marie-Line Karam, PhD, Lebanese American University, Lebanon
Erind Merkuri, PhD, University of Tirana, Albania
Bashkim Rrahmani, PhD, AAB College – Prishtina, Kosovo
Tatyana Dronzina, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Sofia, Bulgaria
Djana Lusha, PhD, Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Jeton Shasivari, PhD, Faculty of Law, SEEU - Tetovo, North Macedonia
Sidney Bravo Melgar, PhD, Andean University of Cusco, Peru
Emilia Alaverdov, PhD, Georgian Technical University, Georgia
Tony Tai-Ting Liu, PhD, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
Felipe Calderón-Valencia, PhD, University of Medellin (UdeM), Colombia
Selcuk Colakoglu, PhD, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, China
Biswajit Mohapatra, PhD, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Rommel C. Banlaoi, PhD, International Studies Department of Miriam College, Philippines
Yiwei Wang, PhD, School of International Studies, Renmin University, China
Ngeow Chow-Bing, PhD, Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
Sezai Ozcelik, PhD, Faculty of Administrative and Political Science, Cankiri Karatekin University, Turkey
Mudassir Fatah, PhD, Department of International Relations, Noida International University, Greater Noida, India
Murat Necip Arman, PhD, Department of International Relations, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey
Antonios Karaiskos, PhD, Graduate School of Law / Faculty of Law, Kyoto University, Japan
Elena Tilovska-Kechedji, PhD, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Thiago Felipe S. Avanci, PhD, CEST/Escola Politecnica/Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Angelos Kaskanis, PhD, Tactics Institute for Security and Counter-Terrorism, London, United Kingdom
Sinisa Malesevic, PhD, Chair of Sociology at the University College, Dublin, Ireland
Sanja Pesek, PhD, Department of Justice, Law and Criminology, American University, Washington DC, USA
Danijela Vukovic-Calasan, PhD, Faculty of Political Science, University of Montenegro - Podgorica, Montenegro
Esat A. Durguti, PhD, Faculty of Economy, University "Isa Boletini" - Mitrovica, Kosovo
Rumena Filipova, PhD, Institute for Global Analytics, Bulgaria
Aleksandra Kolakovic, PhD, Institute for Political Studies - Belgrade, Serbia
Prabhpreet Singh, PhD, School of Law, Manipal University Jaipur, India
Giuseppe Di Genio, PhD, Department of Law, University of Salerno, Italy
Vijay Laxmi Sharma, PhD, School of Law, Manipal University Jaipur, India
Ledion Krisafi, PhD, Albanian Institute for International Studies (AIIS) - Tirana, Albania
Ereza A. Arifi, PhD, College for International Management - Prishtina, Kosovo
Marieta Safta, PhD, Faculty of Law at Titu Maiorescu University - Bucharest, Romania
Samuel Akpan Bassey, PhD, University of Calabar, Nigeria
Dragana Cvorovic, PhD, The University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies - Belgrade, Serbia
Marc Nebojsa Vukadinovic, PhD, Sciences Po, France
Leo S.F. Lin, PhD, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Andi Luhur Prianto, PhD, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, Indonesia
Bosede Ngozi Adeleye, PhD, University of Lincoln, United Kingdom
Özgün Erler Bayir, PhD, Faculty of Political Sciences, Istanbul University, Turkey

Milka Dimitrovska, PhD(c), Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia
Nikola Gjorshoski, PhD, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia
Nikola Lj. Ilievski, PhD(s), Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia
Ibrahim B. Anoba, BA, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria
Mrittika Nandy, PhD(c), Serampore Girls’ College, India
Ofelya Sargsyan, MA, LIBERTAS - European Institute GmbH, Armenia
Nikola G. Petrovski, MA, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, North Macedonia
Ekin Genc, MSc, University of Oxford, UK
Luke Bartosik, LLM, The Catholic University of America, USA

Indexing information

Journal of Liberty and International Affairs is indexed/abstracted in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIH PLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Columbia International Affairs Online, SHERPA/RoMEO, UGC-CARE List Group II etc.

Submission guidelines

The authors are strongly encouraged to read the peer-review process section and the Article Guidelines carefully before preparing an article for submission, and also to check the article for conformance before submitting it for publication.


  • Articles may come from any country but must be written in English.
  • Articles are considered on the basis of scientific validity and technical quality, not perceived impact.
  • The journal editors reserve the right to return to authors, without peer-review, improperly formatted articles.
  • Authors are discouraged from using figures. (If there is sufficient cause to include figures, authors must submit original electronic copies in PNG, TIF, or high-resolution JPG format). If tables are included, they must be created in Word, not Excel.
  • The journal editors do not insist on a particular variant of English language for the articles, but the grammar must be at a publishable level upon receipt. If the article is not written in the author’s mother tongue, the authors are encouraged to enlist the help of a native speaker, or a professional proofreader before submitting the article.
  • The published articles are hierarchically numbered. They are published under the liberal CC Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0). The author holds the copyright and retains publishing rights without restrictions.
  • One author cannot send more than two articles (first author of one article, and co-author of another one). The author declares that any person named as co-author of the article is aware of the fact and has agreed to being so named.
  • The article text should not include any information that identifies the authors, or any other collaborators in the work. The managing editor will remove personal details from the articles, prior to their sending to reviewers.
  • Each author needs to submit a short biography (max. 150 words). If the authors submit their articles via Email (, the short biography should be submitted in a separate file.
  • The articles should be submitted in a Microsoft Word format (.doc or .docx).
  • The journal uses the plagiarism screening tool PlagScan.
  • Consent from the authors affirming that the article is their original work should accompany the article submission via online submission form. If the authors submit their articles via Email (, they should attach signed and scanned JLIA Declaration of originality.

Submission Preparation Checklist
Before submitting the article, the author(s) should check the following list:

  • The article has been made in the light of the journal’s author guidelines.
  • The article has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration.
  • The article file is in Microsoft Word file or is sent via online submission form.
  • The author (s) did not mention his or her name and affiliation in the main text.
  • Author(s) has read all the terms and conditions of the journal.
  • The corresponding author has prepared for submission JLIA Declaration of originality.
  • Author(s) is/are aware of the publication fee of the journal.
  • Each author should provide ORCID iD.




Article title: Times New Roman; 14 pt; bold; alignment centered; single-line spacing; All Caps (max. 100 characters with spaces).

Author details: Times New Roman; 12 pt; single-line spacing; alignment centered. Please write the author details in the following order:

John Galt
Ayn Rand University - New York, USA

Abstract and keywords: Between 150 and 200 words (5-7 keywords); Times New Roman; 12 pt; single-line spacing; justify. Write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences. Get to the point quickly and always use the past tense because you are reporting on a study that has been completed. There are four things you need to include: 1) your research problem and objectives, 2) your methods, 3) your key results or arguments, and 4) your conclusion.

Article text: Times New Roman; 12 pt; justify; 1.5 line spacing; margins: Top: 2,5 cm; Bottom: 2,5 cm; Left: 3 cm; Right: 3 cm. The scope of submitted text should not exceed more than 30.000 characters (with spaces) including references. The text should be written in the neuter gender, concisely with correct orthography. Latin phrases should be set in italics.

Quotations: If they are brief (3 lines or fewer), quotations should be run on with the text. Longer quotations should be indented, without quotation marks. All indented quotations should be typed single-spaced.

Citation style: The author should follow Chicago Style (author-date system) for referencing, for example: (Dahl 1989, 45); (Geddes 1999, 134-43); (Linz 1975). All references should be given in full at first mention. Subsequent citations can be abbreviated. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum.

Headings and subheadings: Times New Roman; 12 pt; bold.

Tables: Times New Roman; bold; size 10; align heading left; single line spacing. Tables must be created in Word, not Excel. The table heading is situated above the table.

Figures: Times New Roman; bold; size 10; alignment centered; single line spacing. The authors must submit original electronic copies of the figures applied in the article in TIFF, JPG, or PNG format. Figure heading is situated under the figure. Consider aligning tables and figures at the center.

Dates: Dates should be given in the form: 26 December 1981.

References: The reference list appears at the end of your article, and provides more detailed information about the sources you cited. Each entry in the reference list also begins with the author’s last name and the publication date, so that your reader can easily find any source they encounter in the text. For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. It is alphabetized by the author's last name.


Journal of Liberty and International Affairs welcomes reviews of recently published books. Authors should submit reviews of works relating to political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. For submitting a book review, authors should follow the requirements:

  • A book review should not exceed 1.500 words.
  • State clearly the name of the author(s), the title of the book (the subtitle, if any, should also be included), the place of publication, the publishing house, the year of publication, and the number of pages.
  • Review authors should describe the topic of the book under consideration, but not at the expense of providing an evaluation of the book and its potential contribution to the relevant field of research. The review should provide a balance between description and critical evaluation.
  • An exact page reference should be provided for all direct quotations used in reviewing the book.

Book reviews should be submitted in Word format to: