Közép-európai arcképcsarnok. 20. század
Central European Portrait Gallery. 20th Century
Contributor(s): István Lukács (Editor), István Majoros (Editor)
Subject(s): History, Language and Literature Studies, Cultural history, Jewish studies, Studies of Literature, Diplomatic history, Economic history, History of ideas, Military history, Political history, Recent History (1900 till today), Jewish Thought and Philosophy, Austrian Literature, Hungarian Literature, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Present Times (2010 - today)
Published by: Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Új-és Jelenkori Egyetemes Történeti Tanszék
Keywords: Central Europe; portraits; European Thinker; Milan Kundera; politicians; writer; Trianon; Economist; Austro-Hungarian Monarchy;
Summary/Abstract: This book presents 27 portraits from Central Europe of 20th century. What is Central Europe? It's not easy to determine it. This region was always in the crossfire of dispute. Central Europe resembles Egyptian dying and rising gods, but the region exists and it has given many distinguished personalities to Europe and the World. The book presents this richness.
- E-ISBN-13: 978-963-284-980-5
- Print-ISBN-13: 978-963-284-979-9
- Page Count: 442
- Publication Year: 2018
- Language: Hungarian
Egy szabálytalan szociológuspálya
(An Irregular Sociologist Carreer)
- Author(s):Eszter Bartha
- Subject(s):Social history, History and theory of sociology, Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010)
- Page Range:17-34
- No. of Pages:18
- Keywords:Gyula Rézler; Hungarian labor sociology; historical objectivity; labor stu-dies; working–class communities; survey; ethnography;
- Summary/Abstract:In the 20th century Central European history it is unfortunately not sur-prising if a scholar is forced into exile and he or she can complete an aca-demic career in a country far away from the place where the research has been started. Gyula Rézler was relatively fortunate in this respect because after the change of regimes he was invited to Hungarian universities, later he even resettled in Hungary and as a belated recognition, he was elect-ed a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His most important achievement in Hungarian sociology is that he has laid the foundation of the scientific methodology of the Hungarian labor history and he elabo-rated the methods which the researchers use even today. He conducted this research still in Hungary, further in a period when labor history was mistaken for „Communism”, and any form of the political left was con-nected with the short-lived Hungarian People’ Republic. A considerable political and human courage and commitment was needed for a young man of „bourgeois” descent to choose the formation of the Hungarian working class for his topic of dissertation and continue the research with the mapping of the work and life conditions of the contemporary work-ers. He also elaborated a method for data collection, which served as a model for later factory case studies. Rézler was a left-wing thinker but he was never a Communist; as his study on the Soviet peasantry demon-strates, although he recognized certain social achievements of the Soviet regime, he clearly recognized the social and human consequences of the dictatorship and the omnipotent state violence and control. With the hardening of the Hungarian Stalinist dictatorship led by Mátyás Rákosi Rézler had to leave the country, and he continued his scholarly career in the United States. The article introduces his life, his labor research, his political and academic thinking and his impact on the Hungarian labor so-ciology. His results in the establishment of the Hungarian labor history and his commitment to academic objectivity remain to be remarkable achievements even if this ethos could not be reconciled with the social and academic climate of the postwar era in Central Europe.
Jan Christian Smuts: egy „tiszteletbeli” közép–európai Dél–Afrikából
(Jan Christian Smuts: an „honorary” Central European from South Africa)
- Author(s):Gábor Búr
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Political history, Social history, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919)
- Page Range:35-50
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:South Africa; Anglo–Boer war; British Empire; South African Republic; scorched earth policy; concentration camps; Treaty of Vereeniging; res-ponsible government; dominion of the British Empire; Union
- Summary/Abstract:Jan Christian Smuts is one of the most remarkable figures of the 20th century. His fate has crossed twice Central Europe, firstly in 1917 when he had held secret negotiations with the representatives of Austria-Hungary in Switzerland and secondly in 1919 when he was sent to a mission to Bu-dapest. His „Cape Dutch”, i.e. Afrikaner or „Boer” origin created expecta-tions in Central Europe that he will be able to understand the ethnic, etc. complexity of our region much better than the representatives of the gre-at nations and powers. It was not his fault that he was not able to fulfill those expectations. His deeds during World War I and after is a well pro-cessed and documented topic in the Central European historiography but not the decade between 1899–1909 when the legend of Smuts got cre-ated as of a person who is able to win the peace after military defeat.
Fiuméből a nagyvilágba
(From Fiume to the World)
- Author(s):Ilona Fried
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010)
- Page Range:51-62
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:Fiume; antifascism; Italian Resistance movement; Padre della Patria; Constitution for the Italian Republic; senator for life;
- Summary/Abstract:Leo Valiani was a politician, historian and journalist born in the town of Fiume in 1909. He was first sentenced to prison as an anti-fascist in 1928. He befriended Arthur Koestler while both men were detained in the Le Vernet camp in France in 1939. In 1943, the Allies sent Valiani behind enemy lines, and he became a leading member of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia, one of the leading groups of the victorious uprising of Milan in April 1945. In 1946, Valiani was elected to the Italian Constituent Assembly. After the dissolution of his party, the Partito d’Azione, Valiani chose to work as an economist, an analyst for a leading bank. He maintained his ideals of democracy, and published the history of the Italian resistance movement, as well as essays on the socialist movement, the Spanish Civil War, etc. He was also a scholar of Hungarian history. He was one of the promoters of the international campaign for the liberation of Hungarian intellectuals arrested after the defeat of the revolution of 1956. In 1966, he published his most important work: The End of Austria–Hungary. He became senator for life in 1980, and continued his work, publishing essays and leading articles right until his death in 1999.
Mitterrand Európai Konföderációs terve
(Mitterand’s European Confederate Plan)
- Author(s):Zoltán Garadnai
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010)
- Page Range:63-80
- No. of Pages:18
- Keywords:François Mitterrand; József Antall; Jean Musitelli; Vaclav Havel; Prague Conference; European Confederation; France; Hungary; Poland; Czech-oslovakia; USSR; United States;
- Summary/Abstract:After the fall of the Berlin Wall François Mitterrand launched his Europe-an Confederation project on December 31, 1989. His project aimed to of-fer to the countries of Eastern Europe with the USSR a large European framework of political cooperation following the idea of Charles de Gaulle’s „Europe from Atlantic to Urals” and „European Europe”, without the United States. The idea of the European Confederation could not be realized by several reasons. According to Mr. Jean Musitelli, responsible for the organisation of the Assises of Prague, François Mitterrand was real-ly afraid of the rebirth of nationalisms before the First World War, and the year of 1919, but his idea of the European Confederation, before it had even some chance to be delivered, was not supported by the Ameri-cans, who could not leave Europe after the Cold War and George Bush wanted to affirm the American leadership in Europe. Mitterrand’s project was not supported also by the 12 European partners of France because, they wanted the integration of unified Germany into the European Union, which could not help to turn European Countries towards the East in the frame of the Confederation. Finally, the new leaders of the ex-satellites of Moscow were afraid of the resettlement of the Communist regimes, and wanted to integrate into the Euro-Atlantic institutions and to get rid rap-idly of the Soviet influence.
Koszorús Ferenc – A becsület útján
(Ferenc Koszorús – On the Road of Honour)
- Author(s):Géza Gecse
- Subject(s):Military history, Political history, WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), History of Antisemitism
- Page Range:81-96
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:admiral Horthy; gendarmery; Jews; deportation; colonel Koszorús;
- Summary/Abstract:The unparalled military intervention on July 6, 1944 by Colonel Ferenc Koszorus and the Hungarian First Armored Division under his command foiled a coup-like action planned by State Secretary Laszlo Baky. Backed by thousands of gendarmerie, Baky was poisd to deport approximately 250,000 Jews, including refugees, living in Budapest to the Nazi German death camps. A few debate as to who should be deemed primarily res-ponsible for the so-called Koszorus „action”. Should it be the Regent Ad-miral Miklos Horthy, who ordered the First Armored Division into action, or Colonel Koszorús, who after volunteering his services and requesting an order to block Baky, successfully carried out the order. Nonetheless, it is beyond dispute that this casualty-free military operation in German oc-cupied Hungary resulted in the survival of thousands.The article written by Géza Gecse describes the tragic situation in oc-cupied Hungary in 1944. He also sheds light on incontrovertible facts de-monstrating that consistent with their duty of loyalty, there were patriotic and humanitarian Hungarian soldiers who were prepared to act at great danger to themselves even in this dark and perilous time.
Uralkodás és emlékezet
(Reign and Memory)
- Author(s):András Gerő
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Present Times (2010 - today), History of Religion
- Page Range:97-110
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:beatification; peace; Church, reign; social reform; memory;
- Summary/Abstract:Charles IV. as a ruler of Austro-Hungarian Empire and as a king of Hungary could not fullfill expectations concerning his reign. He could not bring the peace and he was not able to make the real and necessary poli-tical and social reforms. He tried, but he was not succesfull. His memory however is alive because the Catholic Church beatified him. His memory absolutly connected with it. In the eyes of Catholic Church he is a good man. Otherwise his memory practically does not exist.
Kiemelkedő államférfi avagy Közép–Európa rossz szelleme?
(Prominent Statesman or Evil Genius of Central Europe?)
- Author(s):László Gulyás
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Political history, International relations/trade, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949)
- Page Range:111-126
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:history of Czechoslovakia; Central Europe; Edward Beneš; Hungary; Ma-saryk; Charles University; emmigration;
- Summary/Abstract:For Hungary, state and nation, among those non–Hungarians who ex-erted the greatest influence on its history of the 20th century, Edward Benes ranks among the most influential of the Central European politi-cians. The important stages of his career often intersected the path of Hungary’s history. In this essay we survey the career of Edward Beneš particularly his foreign policy from his birth to his death.
- Author(s):Iván Halász
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Ethnohistory, History of ideas, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949)
- Page Range:127-144
- No. of Pages:18
- Keywords:agrarian movement; Central Europe; fedaration; parliament; prime minister;
- Summary/Abstract:Dr. Milan Hodža (1878–1944) was the first prime minister of Czechoslovakia with Slovak origin (1935–1938), but he was active in the public life from the end of 19th century. Before the first world war he was the member of Hungarian parliament and the unofficial advisor of the Franz Ferdinand (Belveder Circle). Hodža this time established the Slovak agrarian democratic political movement and after 1919 he was the deputy president of the Czechoslovak Agrarian Party, which was the most important civic party in the interwar period. Hodža always supported the idea of the cooperation of the Central European countries. Especially important was this idea for him during his emigration under second world war. Hodža did not agree with the pro-Soviet orientation of emigrant president Edvard Beneš and they had many conflicts. Beneš was the winner of this struggle and Hodža emigrated to USA. There he wrote the main publication of his life – the concept of the fedaration in the Central Europe.
A korlátozott terjeszkedés
- Author(s):Péter Hevő
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Political history, International relations/trade, Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today), Inter-Ethnic Relations
- Page Range:145-166
- No. of Pages:22
- Keywords:Central Europe; Helmuth Kohl; Oder-Neisse line; Visegrád Group; NATO; Ostpo-litik;
- Summary/Abstract:Central Europe as a region played an important role in Helmut Kohl's carreer and politics. At the beginnings of his chancellorship, from 1982 he pursued Ostpolitik, a policy of detent between East and West, wich was initiated by his predecessors, Willy Brandt and Helmut Schmidt.
III. Viktor Emánuel
(Victor Emmanuel III)
- Author(s):Jenő Horváth
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Military history, Political history, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949)
- Page Range:167-188
- No. of Pages:22
- Keywords:First World War; fascism; Mussolini; Italy; Italian Kingdom; dynasty of Sa-voy; Umberto I; Umberto II;
- Summary/Abstract:Victor Emmanuel III reigned for a long time, for 46 years (1900–1946), all the same the international historical litterature hardly deals with him, his name is only mentioned in the publications. Even the Italian his-torians have not written much about him. In the first trimester of the 20th century he was praised by the majority of the publications. But from the last third of the thirties the critical tone intensified with him because he legitimized Mussolini's increasingly aggressive foreign policy. And though he dismissed Mussolini in 1943, but the critical tone on him did not chan-ge. After 1945 he just saw the events. The referendum in 1946 decided the fate of the monarchy and the king.
Milan Kundera Közép–Európa tragédiájáról
(Milan Kundera about the Tragedy of Central Europe)
- Author(s):Agnieszka Janiec-Nyitrai
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Czech Literature, Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010)
- Page Range:189-204
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:Milan Kundera; Central Europe; Central European identity; Russian culture; Czech culture; Czech literature; essay;
- Summary/Abstract:The aim of the article is to depict the context of the origin of Kundera's essay „The Tragedy of Central Europe” (1984) and to summarize and characterize its key points. The author of the text also tries to answer the question why this essay has become a turning point in the debate on Cen-tral Europe's position between East and West. Then the author summa-rizes the most important voices of the debate, to which the essay has giv-en rise among emigrant circles. Not only did Kundera’s concept of Cen-tral Europe resonate among Central European intellectuals and emi-grants, but it also spoke to the West European and American public and helped popularize his literary work. „The Tragedy of Central Europe” es-tablishes Kundera’s attitude to the question of Central Europe. Here he lays the foundations of his thinking about the region, which he seems to have applied in his novelistic work as well. This essay had an enormous impact on discussions of Central Europe, and it has been analyzed in de-tail. Kundera’s controversial issues, especially those regarding his attitude to Russia and Russian culture, or the neglect of the Slovak context, as well as the abolition of the Slavic myth of Central Europe and his emphasis on the Hungarian literary and cultural contribution in formation of Central Europe are also discussed in the paper. There is no doubt that Kundera’s essay has begun the process of re-discovering Central Europe and has become an impetus for the rehabilitation of the region in the West and al-so has played an important role in formatting the Central European iden-tity.
Fejtő Ferenc, Közép–Európa közvetítője Franciaországban
(Ferenc Fejtő, Mediator of Central Europe in France)
- Author(s):D. Gusztáv Kecskés
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:205-216
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:East and Central Europe; Hungarian emigration; emigration in France; French intellectual life; French foreign policy;
- Summary/Abstract:Francois Fejtő as a journalist and intellectuel, expert of the communist World, was a particularly succesfull mediator of East and Central Europe in France where he emigrated in 1938 from Hungary to.
Az elfeledett Nathan Birnbaum és a megtalált keleti zsidóság
(The Forgotten Nathan Birnbaum and the Found Jewry)
- Author(s):Krisztina Kurdi
- Subject(s):Ethnohistory, Political history, History of Judaism, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:217-228
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:Zionism; Herzl; Diaspora Nationalism; Yiddishism; Agudath Israel; Or-todox Judaism;
- Summary/Abstract:Nathan Birnbaum was a remarkable figure in the Jewish political life of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy and beyond. He played a very import-ant role in all the major Eastern European Jewish political movements. He was acknowledged not only as one of the founders of the Zionism but also as a major figure of the Jewish politics and thought.His life had three main phases, representing a progression in his think-ing: a Zionist phase (1882 – 1899); a Jewish cultural autonomy phase (1900 – 1914) which included the organization of the first Yiddish langua-ge conference in Czernowitz; and last period of his life (1915–1937) when he turned to Orthodox Judaism.
Békepárti külügyminiszter a Nagy Háború árnyékában
(Foreign Minister of Peace in the Shadow of the Great War)
- Author(s):Dávid Ádám Ligeti
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Military history, Political history, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919)
- Page Range:229-244
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:Austro-Hungarian Monarchy; Charles I; World War I; foreign policy;
- Summary/Abstract:From December 1916 to April 1918, Count Ottokar Czernin was the Common Foreign Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. He was the leader of peace speeking foreigne policy of the Monarchy.
- Author(s):György Lukács B.
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Military history, Political history, Slovenian Literature, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:245-256
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:Edvard Kocbek; Christian Socialism; Personalism; Liberation Front; massacres after World; War II;
- Summary/Abstract:The purpose of this study is to examine the political career of Edvard Kocbek (1904–1981), the internationally recognised Slovene writer, poet, Christian Socialist thinker and politician. Kocbek became well known in 1937, after publishing a long article about the Spanish Civil War, in which he raised his voice against the fact that the main Slovenian party and the Church leadership supported Francisco Franco. In World War II he and his Christian Socialists cooperated with the communists in the Liberation Front and Kocbek has received high ranking positions after the war, but as a Christian, he had no place in the new regime and was forced to resigne. After a decade, he could publish his literary works again. In the afternoon of his life, he raised a particularly unpleasant question for the regime regarding the massacres committed by the Yugoslav Communists after World War II, which was a taboo subject till then.
George Frederick Cushing és Magyarország a hidegháború korában
(George Frederick Cushing and Hungary in the Cold War Era)
- Author(s):Anita Madarász
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, International relations/trade, Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:257-274
- No. of Pages:18
- Keywords:School of Slavonic and East European Studies; George Frederick Cushing; Hungarian intelligence service; George Henry Bolsover; Rus-sian language teaching; infiltration; Cushing–case;
- Summary/Abstract:The cultural aspect of the Cold War served, supplemented and even overwrote the political maneuvers in many areas. It created such oppor-tunities for the West which made a significant contribution to map the communist countries and make the most effective infiltration possible; of course, this was true in the contrary too, since it was an excellent intelli-gence field also for the East. In this essay, I am dealing only with a smaller but inevitably important segment of this area through the example of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) and Professor George Frederick Cushing (1923-1996). In this case, education did not conceal mutual, general knowledge, since such contacts are related to the history of intelligence in many ways.
Hogyan lehet egy író analfabéta?
(How Can a Writer Be Illiterate?)
- Author(s):Mónika Mátay
- Subject(s):Cultural history, French Literature, Hungarian Literature, WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989), Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), History of Antisemitism
- Page Range:275-292
- No. of Pages:18
- Keywords:emigration; language change; childhood trauma; Central European iden-tity;
- Summary/Abstract:Agota Kristof (1935–2011) was an internationally recognized writer: she was among the most famous Hungarian intellectuals of her time. Despite her reputation abroad, she received much less attention in her home country. Her life story displays her central European identity. How? The goal of the present study is to answer this question. Kristof left Hungary in 1956 as one of the 200,000 refugees who fled from the Soviet invasion af-ter the fall of the revolution. She settled down in Switzerland where she could not fashion herself in a literary career, but worked in a watch facto-ry for years. She made a name for herself after publishing a novel, The Notebook in 1986. The story reflected on her childhood in Kőszeg, a small town in western Hungary, although it was not an autobiography. It was a story, written in French by a Hungarian writer who used very simplified language to evoke the atmosphere of an overly cruel world during WWII. This world was cruel in the public sector as well as in private life. Where does this extraordinary brutality come from? What distresses Kristof ex-perienced as a child which are echoed in the novel?
- Author(s):Andor Mészáros
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Ethnohistory, Political history, 19th Century, Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:293-304
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:Austro–Hungarian Monarchy; Czechoslovakia; Realistic Party; Young Czech Party; Russofil Pan–Slavism;
- Summary/Abstract:Karel Kramář (1860–1937) was one of the most significant politicians of the turn of the 19th and 20th Century and in the first decade of the first Czechoslovak Republic. He was the founder of the Czech Realistic Party with Masaryk and a Czech representative of the Imperial Council in the dualistic Monarchy, one of the most influential politicians of the young Czech party in Vienna. Kramář as the supporter of the Czech Russofil Pan–Slav movement considered useful the Russian and Balkan alliance in the foreign policy of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy and established the Neo–Slav Movement in 1908 for the harmonization of Slav political inter-ests. During the First World War he participated in the Czechoslovak movement and was sentenced to death for treason, was released by am-nesty. Kramář was elected the first prime minister of the republic after 1918, the founding of the first Czechoslovak Republic and also led the Czechoslovak delegation on the Versailles Peace Talks, but in the mid–twenties he gradually lost his political influence.Keywords: Austro–Hungarian Monarchy; Czechoslovakia; Realistic Party; Young Czech Party; Russofil Pan–Slavism;
Látlelet a Monarchiáról
(Medical Report of the Monarchy)
- Author(s):Magdolna Orosz
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Ethnohistory, Political history, History of Judaism, Austrian Literature, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:305-320
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:Vienna Modernism; turn of the century–Vienna; „Habsburg myth”; language crisis; experimental narration; Arthur Schnitzler;
- Summary/Abstract:Arthur Schnitzler was one of the most prominent representants of the so-called „Jung Wien”, i.e. the group of Vienna intellectuals, writers and artists around 1900. His dramatical and narrative works demonstrate characteristic traits, social, intellectual and aesthetical problems, and figu-res of the late k.u.k.-Monarchy, and although he was often considered as an author contributing to the „Habsburg myth”, he had a very sceptical and critical view about his time and the Vienna society of the turn of the century. Schnitzler’s works account i.a. for the ’language crisis’, the crisis of personality in a very special manner, and in his novellas he introduces experimental narrative tools (e.g. multiperspectivism, interior monologue, unreliability) which makes him to a prominently modern author.
Asszimiláció, sovinizmus és idegen hatások
(Assimilation, Chauvinism and Alien Influences)
- Author(s):Balázs Sipos
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Political history, Hungarian Literature, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:321-334
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:Jenő Rákosi; chauvinism; nationalism; anti-Semitism; westernization; modernization; media history; history of literature;
- Summary/Abstract:Jenő Rákosi (1842–1929) was writer, translator, journalist and he took part in the political life as well. Although he had a German origin (his mother's native language was German), as the founded director of Népszínház (Folk Theatre) and the founded editor in chief and the own-er of a nationwide daily (Budapest Hírlap) he became an important lead-er of the campaign (policy) of the Hungarian cultural assimilation and chauvinism. He wanted the members of the national minorities to be-come Hungarians partly because of that liberty and prosperity which should have characterized Hungary according to his purpose. It means that his political beliefs can be described as liberal and nationalist ones in the same time. His political aim was a kind of modernization (Westerniza-tion) of Hungary but in a Hungarian nationalistic manner.
Az osztrák Richelieu
(The Austrian Richelieu)
- Author(s):Péter Szatmári
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:335-344
- No. of Pages:10
- Keywords:Seipel; Austria; Austro–Hungarian Monarchy; Christian Social Party; First Republic;
- Summary/Abstract:The thinking of the generation of the Austrian politicia born in the last dbecades of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was determined by the unique set of identities and diversity that gave a special dinamics to na tion consciousness awakening in the First Republic.
Hantos Elemér (1881–1942)
(Elemér Hantos (1881–1942))
- Author(s):Ferenc Szávai
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Economic history, Political history, International relations/trade, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), Geopolitics
- Page Range:345-358
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:Central Europe; economic relations; new nations states; Masaryk; Beneš;
- Summary/Abstract:Hantos’ ideas contained progressive elements and made a realistic of-fer to the states of Central Europe. Its timing was unfortunate, however, because the new nation states’ desire for separation made its realization more difficult. Also, Germany’s breakthrough, and its new network of bi-lateral economic relations made virtually impossible the alliance of the Central European countries. Other attempts at integration have emerged too which also weakened the process. Hantos’ recognition, and offer of freedom from old grudges was a viable alternative to the weary nations of Central Europe. Elemér Hantos was a precursor of the spirit seeking the possible ways of coexistence, and no longer just for Central Europe, but for the whole of Europe: to emphasize what unites us, not what separates us.
(In the Dictators Shadow)
- Author(s):Gábor Székely
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Political history, Social history, International relations/trade, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Geopolitics
- Page Range:359-374
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:Dimitrov; Reichstag fire; Balkan Federation; Tito; Bulgaria;
- Summary/Abstract:Georgi Dimitrov (1882–1949) Bulgarian communist leader, head of state after 1945. His international recognition was acquired in 1933, follo-wing the German Reichstag–fire trial in Leipzig, where he was acquitted of Hitler's judges, accused by Herman Göring and Joseph Goebbels. He moved then to Moscow, where he became secretary general of the Communist International, wich controlled of the communist parties aro-und the world. He had a role in the elaboration of the popular front policy - successful in France and Spain. At the same time he had to suffer of Sta-lin's dictatorship, he had to experience the execution of. After 1945, with the Yugoslavian Joszip Broz Tito, many of his associates they saw the op-portunity in the Balkan Federation to loosening the dependence on Sta-lin. What Tito did, he did not succeed: the presence of Soviet troops in Bulgaria had decided the outcome.
Egy közép–európai sors
(A Central European Fate)
- Author(s):Károly Szerencsés
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:375-390
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:United States of Europe; neutrality; national democracy; christian ethics; social justice; political emigration; sovereignty;
- Summary/Abstract:A Hungarian fate, a life path, in which dwell almost all the Hungarian polit-ical, social and public impasses of the larger part of the 20th century. Dezső Sulyok’s (1897–1965) life well represents the path of the genera-tion, which had to fight through both of the world wars, experiencing the defeat and dissection of its homeland, along with the humiliation of its na-tion. Sulyok had to fight for democracy, freedom, Christian ethics, social justice in not only one, but two historical eras, only to find himself fail in both of these struggles. Not because of the lack of his abilities or respon-siveness of the Hungarian nation, but primarily because of the interna-tional circumstances. In the middle of the century, between the crushing wills of National socialism and Bolshevik communism, under the pressure of 2 superpowers – the Third (German) Reich’s and the Soviet Union – the struggle for national independence and freedom failed in Hungary. Dezső Sulyok still in time – meaning early – suggested the necessity of Hungary’s neutrality, and the idea of a United States of Europe, which would have been based on the cooperation of nations, and he could even imagine the creation of a World state. At the same time Sulyok was strongly committed to the cooperation of central-European nations, but not on the false grounds of Versailles. In the end, fate had a long emigra-tion in mind for Sulyok, just like for many other democrats and patriots in Central-Europe. Even though he could never return to his – sovietised – homeland, his idea of national democracy did not fade away.
Egy hiányzó fejezet Erdei Ferenc életútjából
(A forgotten chapter from Ferenc Erdei’s biography)
- Author(s):Zsuzsanna Varga
- Subject(s):Cultural history, National Economy, Agriculture, Marxist economics, Economic history, Political history, Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:391-404
- No. of Pages:14
- Keywords:Ferenc Erdei; agrarian lobby; knowledge transfer; Hungary; socialism; Revolution of 1956;
- Summary/Abstract:This paper focuses on a person being both a scientist and a politician who played a key role in socialist Hungary in the initiation of the opening towards the West. Ferenc Erdei (1910–1971) started his career as a soci-ologist in the early 1930s and was mainly involved in politics after 1945. Following the revolution in 1956, he drew back from his active political role. He established the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences which became the the most import-ant background institution of the Agrarian Lobby. My paper argues that the experience Erdei gained from his study trips in Western Europe in the 1930s served later as a basis for the „bridge-building” between the socialist East and the capitalist West. In my paper I investigate which western countries Erdei launched the opening towards and through which channels he started to build a network as well as the political and professional debates that followed this process.
A trianoni békeszerződés magyar aláírói:
(Hungarian Signatories of the Peace Treaty of Trianon)
- Author(s):László Tamás Vizi
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Political history, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939), WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:405-420
- No. of Pages:16
- Keywords:Peace Treaty of Trianon; Hungarian signatories; minister of welfare and labor; extraordinary ambassador and authorized minister; political and public career;
- Summary/Abstract:Life, later destiny, political and public work of Dr. Ágost Benárd, minister of welfare and labor and Alfréd Drasche–Lázár, extraordinary ambassa-dor and authorized minister, who were the signatories of the Peace Trea-ty of Trianon, on 4th June 1920 were beyond the scope of examination of the researchers and historians in the recent time. Present study is aiming to fill this gap, with presenting the two signatories’ political and public ca-reer. It covers their education, role in the First World War and their work between the two wars. It definitely refutes the allegations that Dr. Ágos Benárd and Alfréd Drasche–Lázár were weightless politicians who were willing to leave politics and who were voluntarily signatories of the peace treaty. By contrast, the study describes both politicians’ work after the signing of the peace treaty, and proves with persuasive arguments that they were two honest gentlemen, who were suffering of and said to be victims of the events, they were the formers of the 20th Century Central Europe.
- Author(s):József Vonyó
- Subject(s):Diplomatic history, Economic history, Military history, Political history, Social history, 19th Century, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919), Interwar Period (1920 - 1939)
- Page Range:421-440
- No. of Pages:20
- Keywords:diktatorship; Hitler (Führer); integral revision; corporate system; Musso-lini (Duce); national unity; National Unity Party (NUP); having an end in it-self; national radicalism; leader (Führer);
- Summary/Abstract:Gömbös Gyula (1886‒1936) prime minister of Hungary (1932‒1936) started his political carreer after the defeat of Hungary in the First World War as a well-trained and talented officer. On the basis of his radical views influenced by different effects and because of his policy as head of government many people considered him that he took over mainly Mus-solini’s and partly Hitler’s views and political practice and his thinking and discussing politics were characterized by these facts. This study analyses the strong similarities and the important differences among the ment-ioned three politicians in the area of the ideology and the exercise of po-wer. The differences in the internal conditions of the three countries and among the characters of the three politicians explain the said similitudes and the differences. According to the author it can be prouved that Gömbös tried to creat a system (diktatorship) that (1) is similar to the fas-cism and the national socialism; (2) it’s not a copy (except the unsuccesful trial of the acceptance of the Italian coorporate system), but it’s about be-ing in similar societies the politicians give similar answers to the challenges.