Bendery fortress in the 16th century according to archaeological research Cover Image

Бендерская крепость в XVI в. по данным археологических исследований
Bendery fortress in the 16th century according to archaeological research

Author(s): Sergey N. Razumov, Sergey Fidelsky, Grygorii Chetverikov, I.A. Chetverikov, Sergey O. Simonenko
Subject(s): History, Archaeology, 16th Century, The Ottoman Empire
Published by: Нижневартовский государственный университет
Keywords: Lower Dniester region; 16th century; Bendery fortress; Ottoman Empire; fortification; Moldavian Principality; archaeology; architecture

Summary/Abstract: The Dniester archaeological expedition conducted research of the lower tier of the South-East tower of the citadel of Bendery fortress in February—March 2019. The stone crumb floor with lime was cleared at a depth of 3.35 m from the entrance level. Its building is connected with the first stratigraphic horizon of the tower (1538). The second horizon is represented by filling the lower tier of the tower in the form of a light yellow loess like loam with a thickness of 1,6—1,7 m, in which fragments of pottery ceramics of the 16th century, metal items and animal bones were found. Archaeological research in 2019 confirmed the version that the first stone fortifications were built here by the Turks, and not earlier than the end of the 1530s. It was established in the course of the excavation that the second stratigraphic horizon was formed during the reconstruction and expansion of the fortress in 1584. The Moldavian ruler Peter Hromoi began reconstruction of the fortificationsб which were dilapidated during Polish-Cossack raids, at the beginning of this year, on the orders of the Turkish Sultan. The inner ditch and the Lower Fortress were built within a few months. Loam from the filling of the ditch was used to fill the lower tier of the South-East, and probably other citadel towers, to strengthen them against the intensified siege artillery and tunnels. The materials of this horizon reflected new trends in fortification art of the second half of the 16th century in the North Black Sea region and neighboring regions.