Etiquette (Ādāb al-Muāsharah) Books of the One-Party Period in Terms of Values Education Cover Image

Değerler Eğitimi Açısından Tek Parti Dönemi Âdâb-ı Muâşeret Kitapları
Etiquette (Ādāb al-Muāsharah) Books of the One-Party Period in Terms of Values Education

Author(s): Kamil Çoştu
Subject(s): Education, Theology and Religion, Islam studies, The Ottoman Empire
Published by: Anadolu İlahiyat Akademisi
Keywords: Religious Education; Values Education; Ādāb al-Muāsharah Books; Single Party; Value; Socio-Cultural Change; Innovation;

Summary/Abstract: The modernization concept that started in the last period of the Ottoman Empire was seen as a compulsory way to follow after the foundation of the Republic. Founded in 1923, CHP is the party that ruled the country alone between 1925-1945. Since one party was in the administration it is named as the “One-Party Period” between those years. Between the years 1925 and 1945 content of the modernization was seen in many fields such as political, socio-cultural, economics as being completely Europeanized, which was also reflected in the publications launched in the one-party period. One of the types of publications in which this understanding of modernization is seen as the most obvious is the works for etiquette (ādāb al-muāsharah). From the point of the quantity of these works, it is seen that the etiquette books published in the one-party period are relatively more than the Ottoman period. While 18 works were published in the late Ottoman period, 26 books were published in the one-party years. Within the scope of this research, 26 books with the title including the phrase “ādāb al-muāsharah” were examined. It was understood that the aut-hors fully supported the socio-cultural changes that the political administration of the period wanted to make. Considering that these books were published at a time when religious and moral education was problematic; it is understood that it plays a clear mission and vision role in gui-ding the perception of the value of the society. There are differences in the use of the language of religion in publications before and after 1930. The language of religion which was seen as a mean of legitimizing the innovations brought by one-party management in the pre-1930s publications seems to have been used deliberatetly in the secular expressions, and the religious element, expression and way of living were belittled. In this article, firstly, the conceptual framework was explained and then the publications for the subject were examined in terms of changing the perception of value under the titles of personal, family, social and institutional etiquette. Altho-ugh it was realized with modernization and European influence, it is seen that this issue had been important since the times of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror and taught as a lesson in schools. Similar courses were included in the late Ottoman education and training curriculum. Looking at the publications launched in the one-party period in terms of authors, it is seen that some of compiled more than one work. In the publications, it was emphasized that personal care means modernization and that both men and women should mind. Otherwise, it is stated that it won’t be valueable. This situation is valid not only for men but also for women. Another set of rules that men and women must follow is the way they conduct in social life. The reason why it is compul-sory to follow these behaviors arises from the thought of ensuring the survival of the state. Ot-herwise, the common understanding was that the state will be shaken. For the reason that the only way the newly established state has chosen for itself is modernization. The survival of the state is mentioned in these works, which will be possible through the daily application of the European tradition. Looking at the works, it is seen that the understanding of family has changed quite a lot. It was stated that the way family members address each other changes and some concepts are not suitable for use. It is no longer inconvenient to enter the houses with shoes, but various types of entertainment such as New Year’s Eve enters into family life. A particular issue mentioned about the family is the understanding of gender equality. It was stated that the old ti-mes/administrations did not provide equality between men and women. The main issue that is expressed primarily for corporate prosperity is respect for managers. The second duty of a citizen who minds corporate success is to work hard and pay taxes. It is often mentioned that the future of the state depends on it. In some of the publications, it is seen that French, German, and Italian manners were taken as guides. While the French influence prevailed in the last period of the Ottoman Empire but at the beginning of the one-party years, it is understood from the publicati-ons that after 1930 the British rules of life gradually gained worth. In the publications, women and girls are mentioned as the most important social segment that must obey the rules. For this reason, it has been tried to express the values through women’s, which are considered in the books of the etiquette. The types of clothing such as veils and burqa are expressed as out of age, and the types of clothing related to women’s issues such as clothing-dressing and eating-drinking are mentioned. According to the published books of this period, it is quite natural for women to drink alcohol and dance with men. Even the woman should have a good knowledge of these. This indicates that the perception of value has changed and / or is desired to be changed. Many etiquette books were published after the one-party period. When these books are examined in general, it can be seen that they are parallel to the political understanding of the period. While publications of the last period of the Ottoman Empire is a signature of modernization from vari-ous perspectives, it is a way of becoming European in every aspect in the one-party period and making sense of value and direction. In fact, while the concept of “ādāb al-muāsharah” was an expression of modernization before 1945, this situation started to lose its importance in the following years and became a conservative expression especially after 2000. As a result, we can express this: Many of the personal, domestic, social and institutional issues mentioned in the etiquette books published in the one-party period are important in terms of being a sign of the changing value perception of the period. In every period, there have been various types of publi-cations which justify the innovations that political will wants to realize. In the single-party pe-riod, it is possible to see the etiquette books as a type of publication expressing the innovations that the constitutive will want to realize. Since the socio-cultural innovations realized by the constitutive will between 1925 and 1945 were directly or indirectly related to religious insights and practices, the works that were published in this period presented a new perception of value to the society.

  • Issue Year: 2020
  • Issue No: 40
  • Page Range: 129-153
  • Page Count: 25
  • Language: Turkish