The system of forced labor camps and the NKVD in Baltic countries, Middle East Europe and Balkans after World War II Cover Image
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Sistem logora prinudnog rada i NKVD u pribaltičkim zemljama, Srednjoistočnoj Evropi i na Balkanu posle II svetskog rata
The system of forced labor camps and the NKVD in Baltic countries, Middle East Europe and Balkans after World War II

Author(s): Tadeusz Wolsza
Subject(s): History
Published by: Institut za savremenu istoriju, Beograd

Summary/Abstract: The article presents a chronological history of the creation and functioning of labor camps in the countries of Central, Eastern, and South Europe. The author describes the most important camps and gives statistic data of individual countries. In Poland, in 1950-1958, there were at least 350 thousand people in labor camps and in Prisonersž Labour Centres (operated in 1945-1956). In Czech Republic and Slovakia in the analyzed period there were more than 470 labor camps. In the area of Eastern Germany, the first Soviet camps were founded in Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen. In 1945 – 1950, 10 such centers were established with 154 thousand of Germans and about 35 thousand of foreigners. In Romania, in 1945 – 1989, there were 230 labor camps. The bestknown labor camps were located in Sighet and Galati. In Hungary, there were filtration, resettlement and prisoners of war camps (mainly for Germans). Labor camps were established there only in 1950 and their slow eradication began in 1953. The most famous camp was located in Resck. In Bulgaria, the first camp was established in January 1945 (Sveti Wracz), then in Dupnica, Bobow Doł, Bogdanow Doł and in Kucjan near Pernik. Bulgarian prisoners also worked in the uranium mines in Bukowo. The camps were designed for the pre-war policemen, Russian "white" immigrants and collaborators. Later, the most repressive camp was on the island of Persin on the Danube, near the town of Belene (till 1953; 1900 prisoners). In 1956, after the events in Hungary, Bulgaria's communist government reactivated the camp on the island of Persin and in Lovech. In 1944 – 1962, there were more than 23,5 thousand of people (14,6 thousand of political prisoners) in Bulgarian camps. In Yugoslavia, the first camp, Mała Zica, was established in 1949 on the island of Goli Otok ("The Naked Island"), then on the islands of Ugljan and Rab. The first transport of prisoners counted about 1300 people. In 1949 – 1953, there were about 31-32 thousands people (including women).

  • Issue Year: 2015
  • Issue No: 13
  • Page Range: 229-254
  • Page Count: 26