RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE AND INTOLERANCE IN TRANSYLVANIA AFTER THE RELIGIOUS REFORM Cover Image
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Toleranţa şi intoleranţa religioasă în Transilvania după Reforma religioasă
RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE AND INTOLERANCE IN TRANSYLVANIA AFTER THE RELIGIOUS REFORM

Author(s): József Marton
Subject(s): History
Published by: Universitatea »1 Decembrie 1918« Alba Iulia
Keywords: tolerance; intolerance; confession; bishop; priests; catholic; reformed; prince; Reformation; Diet

Summary/Abstract: Transylvania became both “Babel of Religions” and “the land of confessional freedom” during the 16th century. The first observation was a palpable confessional situation, and the second one might be explained only through the multiple European relations of the small Principality. As far as the Transylvanian problem of confessional tolerance and intolerance in a diversified manner is concerned, we shall have satisfactory answers concerning their significance. When we discuss this problem without taking into account the precursory social, political and economic medieval situation of Principality, the confessional and historical evolution of the region generates a narrowing of the historical perspective in the direction of a narrow confessionalism. Taking into account the precursory and simultaneous social and political change that interfered in the course of Reform evolution and diversification, we shall obtain a well-outlined image of the religious tolerance and intolerance in the Principality. It is therefore necessary to reflect upon several social phenomena that affected the historical evolution because they might strengthen the comprehensive side of the idea of tolerance as part of our dialogue. We shall recognize manifestations of tolerance and intolerance for each of the periods of time in the history of Transylvania (meanwhile, Transylvania became “ the Babel of religions”). Although the juridical defining of the concept of “religious freedom” had been previously discussed, the research carried out up to the present did not sufficiently exploit this historical issue. It is therefore necessary to have a new debate and confrontation, and an equilibration of the different confessional positions. Society and church remained in close connections with the period under analysis, and the situation did not change - the big social and religious Transylvanian metamorphosis did not change it either. State jurisdiction was imbued with confessional laws that ensured a favorable confessional framework for the population. We consider that the Transylvanian intolerance was not influenced by the ethnical influences of the population on the territory, but it was much more influenced by the confessional diversity and bias within the same nation. The catalyses of intolerance – especially for political reasons – were the people who got the power. The type of confession of those who got the power in Principality was always the dominant confession from the political point of view. Generally speaking, the privileges of the confession were rendered by the prince’s confession, and their loss was the result of the loss of the princely power. Hence, the Catholics benefited from state support during the 17th century, and Roman Catholics held the power in the 18th century.

  • Issue Year: 13/2009
  • Issue No: Special
  • Page Range: 195-210
  • Page Count: 16
  • Language: Romanian