Author(s): Olena Mykolaivna Kindratets
Subject(s): Political Sciences, Security and defense, Peace and Conflict Studies
Published by: Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава Мудрого
Keywords: radicalization; process of radicalization; models of radicalization; causes of radicalization; deradicalization; counter-radicalization;

Summary/Abstract: Problem setting. The radicalization of society is possible in countries with different political regimes. Finding out the reasons leading to the processes of radicalization is the first step in developing programs for counter-radicalization and de-radicalization.Recent research and publications analysis. Various approaches to defining radicalization, its types and models have been studied. The understanding of radicalization as a process is noted. Methodological approaches to the modelling of radicalization are considered. Various ideas of scientists about the reasons, nature, characteristics of radicalization are investigated. Attention is drawn to the study of the mechanisms of involvement in the process of radicalization. The importance of the functional and descriptive definition of radicalization, such types of radicalization as the radicalization of thoughts and the radicalization of actions (K. McCauley, S. Moskalenko) is noted. The author agrees to the conclusion ofA. P. Schmid about the possibility of radicalization of both non-state actors and state ones. There is a growing interest of scientists in the problem of radicalization in the digital era. It is indicated that the goal of many studies is to develop recommendations for the prevention of radicalization (counter-radicalization) and de- radicalization.Paper objective. Study of the causes of radicalization of society in countries with different political regimes.Paper main body. Possible reasons for the radicalization of society are considered. It is noted that sometimes the assumption of the authorities regarding the real reasons for the radicalization of society can be erroneous. The author notes the difficulty of identifying the causes of radicalization under an authoritarian regime due to the lack of feedbackfrom society and government. The importance of empirical research on the radicalization of society is pointed out. Specific examples of radicalization are given, confirming the existence of cause-and-effect relationships in political processes. The instability in the «semi-free» countries is explained by the incompleteness of the democratization process.Conclusions of the research. It is pointed out that radicalization is a complex process, the nature ofwhich is determined by many factors. Research into the causes ofradicalization is essential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization. Interest in the problem of radicalization of society is growing, since political stability is being violated in both democratic and non-democratic countries. Sometimes radicalization leads to extremism, terrorism. The use of violence either by citizens or by the authorities leads to acute conflicts that are difficult to resolve. Therefore, understanding the causes of radicalization creates conditions for preventing such conflicts.