Polygenesis of the Mąkolice Hill on the Vistula and Odra Watershed on the Bełchatów Plateau, Łódź Region Cover Image

Poligeneza pagóra w okolicach Mąkolic na wododziale Wisły i Odry na Wysoczynie Bełchatowskiej,
Polygenesis of the Mąkolice Hill on the Vistula and Odra Watershed on the Bełchatów Plateau, Łódź Region

Author(s): Lucyna Wachecka-Kotkowska, Maria Górska-Zabielska, Piotr Czubla, Elżbieta Król
Subject(s): Cultural Essay, Political Essay, Societal Essay
Published by: Łódzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe
Keywords: polygenesis; interlobal node; Wartanian ice-sheet; structural; petrography; magnetic analyses; Quaternary; Łódź Region; Central Poland

Summary/Abstract: This paper presents a polygenic hill at Mąkolice (Piekary, Figs 2, 4), located on the Bełchatów Plateau, through which passes the Vistula-Odra watershed (Fig. 1). The structural and textural studies of sediments, including petrographic and magnetic ones (Figs 4, 5, 6, Tabs 1, 2), allowed to distinguish 10 series of sediments assigned to 6 sediment complexes (Fig. 4). It has been shown that the development of the area relief was effected by the presence of a Mesozoic surface elevation, which influenced the direction and rate of the glacier mass flow. Sediments of the older Pleistocene glaciations (MIS 10, Southern Polish Complex, Sanian II) built the northern slope of the form (lithocomplex 1). The dominant morphogenetic factor was the Wartanian ice-sheet (MIS 6, Late Saalian, Middle Polish Complex) which arrived from NW (Widawka lobe) and NE/E (Rawka, Pilica and Luciąża lobes) creating an interlobal node (Fig. 1). The ice-sheet and meltwater formed, in two stages, the core of a sand and a gravel moraine hill with glacitectonic disorders and decay level (lithocomplexes 2 and 3). Excentrically flowing water destroyed the lower part of the hilly slopes of glacial origin which in turn have become an erosive remnant hill and on its outskirts the Bogdanów valley was established (lithocomplex 4) as a marginal valley (Fig. 4). The next stages of the development of the relief were associated with the Vistulian (MIS 5d- 2, Northern Polish Complex) when the studied area got into the range of the periglacial climate. It was stressed that at that stage the morphogenetic factors were glacial processes – fluvial, denudational and aeolian, modelling the original glacial relief, as the form slopes are wrapped by denudational sand covers. Gray mud occurs between vertices (lithocomplex 5) and aeolian sands in the southern part at the base of the form (lithocomplex 6). The penultimate, Holocene stage was recorded in the outskirts of the hill, where in the valleys surrounding it mineral and organic deposits of valley bottoms have been found. The last morphogenetic factor is Man establishing large gravel pits (Mąkolice I-V), and filling them up with wastes following the depletion of gravel and sand after sand and gravel are depleted. The form presented is one other example confirming the hypothetical polygenic character of Central Poland relief.

  • Issue Year: 2012
  • Issue No: 100
  • Page Range: 161-178
  • Page Count: 18
  • Language: Polish