Author(s): Oksana Anatoliivna Stasevska
Subject(s): Politics of History/Memory
Published by: Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава Мудрого
Keywords: historical memory; modern social myth; interpretation of the historical past; historical knowledge; values;

Summary/Abstract: Problem setting. The analysis of the phenomenon of interpreting of the past history as a factor in constructing reality raises the interest of many contemporary thinkers. At the same time, in the modern world, the innovation is the use of historical memory and modern social myth to explain and construct the picture of the past. The power elites are actively using historical memory to form the image of the state and the nation, creating an official version of history in confronting their opponents in the international arena, seeking self-determination, positioning in the modern world, and most importantly - their own internal self-determination and consolidation. The special relevance of the research is given by the specifics of modern Ukrainian society, when in the conditions of the domination of the social uncertainty of a globalized world, recourse to the origins of national-civilizational identity becomes necessary in order to strengthen social and political stability. The rule of pluralism of ideas of comprehension of the past acts as the foundation for purposeful development of society, as well as stave one of the sources for the formation of new social perspectives. An important factor in increasing the need for a new interpretation of history can be recognized as the "acceleration of time", the distance from the past, requiring its explanation. The search for a "new" historical past, "other" interpretations of known historical facts is offset by mythological design.Recent research and publications analysis. Historiography of the author determined by the problem is large. The basis for understanding the modern myth was the work of M. Eliade, K. Levy-Strauss, R. Bart, B. Malinowski, M. Eliade, C. G. Jung, E. Cassirera. A. Schopenhauer, J. Sorel, P. Gurevich. The domestic scientific tradition of studying a social myth is only formed and characterized rather by the formulation of problems rather than their solution. The works of F. Anckersmith, T. Adorno, P. Nora, A. Assmann, P. Hutton, M. Khalbwax and others are devoted to the original interpretation of the philosophical interpretation of the phenomenon of historical memory. , and also in the range of scientific interests in the research of such contemporary Ukrainian scholars as Y. Hrytsak, L. Zashkilnyak, Y. Zerny, A. Kiridon, I. Girich, V. Masnenko, O. Smolyar, O. Udod, Yu. Shapoval and other.Paper objective. The purpose of the article is to understand the specificity of historical memory and modern social myth as forms of interpretation of the past history, explication of positive and negative in their interaction and the essence of their influence on the state of consciousness of society.Paper main body. The transformational state of society is always characterized by attempts to reconsider experience, to rearrange the content of historical memory, to adapt it to temporal political interests. The content and semantic content of knowledge about the ancient times often depend on subjective aspects, are constructed in the present and reflect the vision of the experience of the community in favor of certain power elites of light. An analysis of scientific literature on the problems of historical memory can distinguish its essential features. The main characteristics of historical memory are its social determinism, the basis for the formation of individual and social consciousness, which is why it directly affects the historical public consciousness. It is a significant component of the axioms of culture, not only presents itself as a value, but also realizes the need to preserve the integrity of the domestic spiritual space. The basis of historical memory is the connectivity. It reproduces the heredity and continuity of social existence, despite the fact that in some periods it exists in a latent form and is actualized in certain historical conditions. For specific features of historical memory belongs selectivity, value color, tendency to irrationality, binarism, as a constant the process of memorizing and forgetting. Historical memory in modern political realities is not a constant. It is modeled and varied depending on the interests and tasks of political groups and parties.At the same time, the mechanisms of the mythologization of history, which considerably increases the importance of understanding the features of the myth as a form of interpretation of history, become of no less importance in the modern world. the most important properties of social myth as a form of interpretation of the historical past is its fundamental difference from the classical, archaic. The archaic myth was the basis of its creation folk art, aimed at protecting the family, people, the state, to preserve the health of man, people, country, nature, the accumulation of mass energy, which mobilized people for certain actions. The modern myth does not have such a clear positive orientation - the duality of its consequences lies in the fact that it can both consolidate society and threaten the absolute destruction of society. Among the main features of the social myth, researchers distinguish his artificiality, purposeful construction in the interests of certain social groups, in contrast to the spontaneously formed archaic myths; he is increasingly rationalized and ideologized. It is also important to note that modern myth has a purely functional, not cognitive value. Consumption as a sign of modern myth leads to the fact that he is not "burdened" by moral intentions.The modern myth has a dual character: the constructive role of the myth manifests itself in the ability to ensure the integrity of society. A destructive role manifests itself in its ability to radically change the cultural and moral guidelines of society. The technical capabilities of the information society, the excessive amount of information have become the cause of activating myth-making activity.Conclusions of the research. Historical memory and contemporary social myth as a form of interpretation of the past history have rather common features and influence each other vigorously. Also, their actualization and active inclusion in the comprehension of life occur in the crisis periods of history, when there is a need to overcome real or imaginary "breaks of being", to fill the fragmentation of scientific, philosophical, moral and religious searches. For us, it is important:first, the attraction of objective scientific research to the modern interpretation of the historical past, and secondly, their ethicization, filling the moral assessments of the events of the past from the standpoint of universal values of our time since they have a powerful mobilizing influence on the public consciousness and are really capable of changing the course of modern events.