Author(s): Volodymyr Fedorovych Smolianiuk
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Published by: Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава Мудрого
Keywords: nation; national interests; national values; national security; system of national security; system of ensuring national security; challenges; threats; dangers; risk;

Summary/Abstract: Problem setting. National Security of Ukraine as a state of protection of the vital interests of man, society and the state is based on two main systems - the national security system itself and the system of ensuring national security. At the same time, the majority of Ukrainian citizens have insufficient knowledge about the systemic principles of national security. This has negative consequences for practical activities on ensuring the national security of Ukraine. Further scientific research in this area and their bringing to the general public of specialists involved in the sphere of national security will become necessary. Recent research and publications analysis. The issues of the national security of Ukraine (including the systemic principles of its provision) have been raised in the writings of numerous authors. Among them, in particular, are V. Gorbulin, O. Vlosyuk, V. Gorovenko, О. Dzoban, B. Pamhonsky, G. Sytnik, M. Trebin. The specialists of the National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine (Y. Melnyk, V. Abramov, S. Borisyevich, A. Datsyuk, V. Kyrylenko, V. Mandragelia, R. Marutyan, etc.) work fruit-fully in this area. At the same time, an urgent need is an increase in author’s teams that are concerned with the national security of Ukraine in terms of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and the transformation of national security in the key factor of Ukraine’s state survival. Paper objective. To reveal the essence, structure, target direction of the national security system and the system of ensuring national security. Determine the socio-political subordination of these systems. Determine the subjects of national security, which are part of both systems. Determine the normative and legal support of the activities on ensuring the national security of Ukraine. Paper main body. The study of the national security sphere of any country requires the use of methodological tools, built on the basis of systematic analysis of complex social processes. Below we will discuss two key systems directly involved in securing society, the state, the citizen: a) the national security system and b) the system of ensuring national security. The national security system is an open, dynamic social system, the main purpose of which is to create conditions for the realization of national interests, to ensure the integrity of society and the state. Its constituent elements are the nation, national interests, national values, activities for their protection, national security as a state of protection of national interests, as well as the challenges, threats and dangers of destructive influence. The activities of society, state, citizens in protecting (defending, promoting) national interests takes place in various spheres, the total number of which depends on the specific historical conditions of the country’s development, the format of the challenges and dangers facing it, the experience of security activities, etc. In the Ukrainian legislation, the areas of ensuring national security recognized internal political, foreign policy, military, social, humanitarian, economic, scientific and technological, informational, environmental, as well as the areas of state security, civil protection of the population, security of the state border. Thus, Ukraine’s national security is the protection of state sovereignty, territorial integrity, democratic constitutional order and other national interests of Ukraine from real and potential threats. Depending on the tasks that need to be resolved in the process of securing national security, a formal part of the national security and the national security system (public authorities, security forces, etc.) and an informal part (civil society institutions, citizens, mass media, etc.) can be singled out. Depending on the subject of national security, which plays a leading role in the analysis of national security factors and when adopting the appropriate management decision, one can consider the national, state and public subsystems of the national security and the national security system, which mutually complement and control in a certain way one another. Under the system of ensuring the national security of Ukraine in the broad sense, one should understand a set of theoretical and methodological, regulatory, informational and analytical, organizational and managerial, intelligence, counterintelligence, operational search, personnel, scientific and technical, resource and other measures aimed at minimization threats and dangers, guaranteeing the development of national interests, spiritual and material well-being of the people of Ukraine and the effective functioning of the system of national security of Ukraine. The main purpose of the system of ensuring the national security of Ukraine is to achieve the goals of national security. The main function of this system is to ensure balanced coexistence of the interests of the individual, society and the state through monitoring, diagnosis, detection and identification, prevention and termination, minimization and neutralization of the internal and external threats and threats. The subjects of ensuring the national security of Ukraine are the President of Ukraine, the Parliament of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine, ministries and other central executive authorities, the National Bank of Ukraine, courts of general jurisdiction, the Prosecutor’s Office of Ukraine, the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine, local state administrations and local self-government bodies, the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Security Service of Ukraine, the External Intelligence Service of Ukraine, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and other officers formations formed in accordance with the laws of Ukraine; bodies and units of civil protection, as well as citizens of Ukraine, associations of citizens. These bodies are part of both systems. In this regard, with regard to the power structures of the state used the term «military organization of the state», which in modern terms changed to the security and defense sector. March 14, 2016, the Decree of the President of Ukraine approved the Concept of Development of the Security and Defense Sector of Ukraine. Another public-management innovation is the proposal to periodically conduct a comprehensive review of the security and defense sector. Case for the implementation of the decisions. Success depends on the activity and purpose of the state and society during the practical implementation of security-defense strategies and programs. Conclusions of the research. The system of national security in Ukraine demonstrates the wide-ranging causal relationships between the nation and the need to secure its security in a modern globalized world that continuously generates diverse challenges, threats and dangers. This system, based on national interests and values, is a more complex entity than a system of ensuring national security. This explains the complexity of the reflection of the systemic principles of the national security of Ukraine from the side of not only the general population, but also the existing politics. Both systems are in a state of dynamic development. They did not acquire the final forms. This could not have happened due to the complexity of the processes of nation¬building in modern Ukraine, the lack of certainty of national interests, the superficial nature of their legal consolidation, and the lack of experience (traditions) of ensuring the national security of independent Ukraine. Legislation on national security and defense of Ukraine is gaining more and more Western character. An indication of this is the active use of the term «security and defense sector» instead of the «military organization of the state».