Coping with Loneliness: Loneliness, Religious Coping, Religiosity, Life Satisfaction and Social Media Usage Cover Image

Yalnızlıkla Başa Çıkma: Yalnızlık, Dini Başa Çıkma, Dindarlık, Hayat Memnuniyeti ve Sosyal Medya Kullanımı
Coping with Loneliness: Loneliness, Religious Coping, Religiosity, Life Satisfaction and Social Media Usage

Author(s): Yahya Turan
Subject(s): Psychology, Theology and Religion, Islam studies
Published by: Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İlahyat Fakültesi
Keywords: Psychology of Religion; Loniliness; Religious Coping; Religiosity; Life Satisfaction; Social Media; Internet;

Summary/Abstract: Loneliness that has spread rapidly today and has adversely affected the quality of life and happiness of people, has become one of the most important social problems especially in America and Europe. This fact led to the establishment of a ministry responsible for loneliness in England, and this research comprises loneliness as one of the main research topics, to comprehend the level of loneliness among university students who are representatives of a young generation in Turkey. This study was conducted on a 416 students sample from different faculties of the University of Ordu. In the questionnaire form; UCLA loneliness scale, religious coping and life satisfaction scales were used. In addition, questions were asked to determine the participants' perceptions of individual religiousness and social media use. As a result of analyzes made with SPSS statistical program; there is a negative relationship between religiousness and loneliness, negative religious achievement, level of visibility in social media, and the number of social media in use; a positive relationship was found between religiousness and positive religious achievement. It has also been understood that the subjective perception of religiousness does not lead to a difference in gender but leads to a difference in life satisfaction. While a negative relationship between loneliness and positive religious coping, life satisfaction and messaging is detected, a positive satisfaction between life satisfaction and positive religious achievement, the negative relationship between negative religious coping and the presence of interaction was detected. This study is important in that many variables deal with each other and their interactions.Summary: In this study, basically the relations and interactions between loneliness and subjective perception of religiosity, religious coping, life satisfaction, the tendency of internet and social media use are discussed. To our best knowledge, there is no study that has examined the relationship between loneliness and religiosity, religious coping, using the internet and social media. Therefore, this study aims at bridging the research gap through investigating loneliness levels of students and the other factors as stated above at a state university in Turkey from their perspectives. This study used a survey model. The data was collected by means of questionare. Four hundred-sixteen students (e.g. 238 females and 178 males) studying at theology, agriculture, medicine, education, and art faculties in a state university participated in the study.In the first part of the questionnaire developed in accordance with the research model, there is the question "How do you evaluate yourself in terms of religious commitment?" to determine participants' subjective perception of religiosity beside demographic variables. A scale of 1-7 was presented to the participant to make his own evaluation. Scores near 7 indicate the subjective perception of religiosity is high; scores near 1 indicates that the subjective perception of religiosity is low.In the second part; to determine the loneliness levels of the participants, the "UCLA Loneliness Scale" (University of California Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale), which was developed by Russell Peplau and Ferguson in 1978 and then in 1980 whose psychometric properties were re-examined by Russell, Peplau and Cutrona was used (α=.881). Along with that, in order to determine the activities that the participants have tendency to in difficult and distressful situations and the frequency of the tendency to these activities by these participants, "Religious Coping Scale", developed by Ali Ayten by utilizing the Religious Coping Scale developed by Pargament, Koenig and Perez, was used (α =.883). Also, "Life Satisfaction Scale" consisting of five words, developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen and Griffin (1985), whose translation into Turkish, validity and reliability studies were done by Ali Ayten, was used to enable participants to determine their level of satisfaction with their life (α =.818). Lastly, the survey form was used to gather information questioning the length of time the users are engaged with social media and the activities they do on social media.Several inferential statistical analyzes (t-test, ANOVA, correlation and Regression) were conducted to examine the interaction and relations between groups. Although there is no significant difference in terms of statistics (p>, 05) when the results are taken into account, it has been found that the perception of subjective religiousness of men (M= 4,42, SD= 1,57) is higher than that of women (M= 4,31, SD=1.17).The correlation analysis between subjective perceptions of religiosity and loneliness has revealed a negative relationship between these two variables (p <, 001, r = -, 20). In the analysis of correlation between religiosity and positive, negative and general religious coping tendencies, it has been found that there is a relationship between religiosity perception and religious attitudes. Positive relationship has been found between religiosity perception and positive religious coping (p =, 000, r =, 52), negative finding between religiosity perception and negative religious coping (p =, 001, r = -17); positive finding between religiosity perception and general religious tendency (p=,000, r=,46). Visibility level in social media with religiosity perception has been detected (p=,007, r= -14). Also, negative correlation has been found at the significance level between the perception of religiosity and the number of social media (p=,015, r= -,12). The analysis of ANOVA was used to examine whether the subjective perception of religiosity leads to a difference in life satisfaction. Those who see themselves as religious at level 6 have differed significantly from those who see themselves as religious at level 2 and level 3in terms of being satisfied with their lives (P <.05).Analysis of correlation between positive religious coping and loneliness, a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between the two variables (p=,000, r= -,20). In the analysis of correlation made between positive and negative religious coping tendencies and life satisfaction, a positive relationship has been found between life satisfaction and positive religious coping (p<,01, r= ,18); negative satisfaction has been found between life satisfaction and negative religious coping (p<,01, r= -,26).In the analysis of correlation between loneliness and life satisfaction, a significant relationship has been found between them in the negative direction (p=,000, r= -,44). In regression analysis made by the enter method as to how relationship and interaction are between the message received as a dependent variable and the loneliness received as an argument, it has been determined that there are relationship and interaction between two variables (p=,005, ΔR2=,02, β= -,14).In the direction of these findings, in order to reduce loneliness, which is a negative feeling, and to increase the life satisfaction, which is in the opposite pole of depressive tendencies, it can be said that supporting religious feelings and thoughts, making religious education more efficient and productive is important for a strong and healthy society. In addition, religiosity has important effects on the use of social media that has become a major threat to society's mental health. This study has also tried to determine the effect of religiosity on confidentiality or privacy, to put it in a different way, in social media which has become a surveillance tool. According to the results of the study, as the individual becomes religious, he or she tends to share privacy with closer circles by increasing the level of privacy on social media accounts. Also, the perception of religiosity, reduction in the number of social media tools used mean that the effect these tools, which have quickly taken place in the society as well as taking the important and precious time of the society, on individual's life will be reduced.Again in the direction of the findings of this research, it can be said that the life satisfaction of the individuals, who use positive religious coping skills to the fullest and get away from negative religion, will increase. Along with that, it has been understood that life satisfaction will increase as the individual's sense of loneliness decreases. In the analysis carried out on the assumption that the individual may choose to ease loneliness by messaging, it has been seen that loneliness is a positive predictor on messaging, however its explanation percentage is low.

  • Issue Year: 22/2018
  • Issue No: 1
  • Page Range: 395 - 434
  • Page Count: 40
  • Language: Turkish