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Author(s): Balázs Holl
Subject(s): History, Archaeology, Geography, Regional studies, Ancient World
Published by: Akadémiai Kiadó
Keywords: archaeology; survey; Baradla cave; Aggtelek karstic region; Hungary; neolithic age;

Summary/Abstract: The Baradla was the first cave to be examined archaeologically in Hungary, yet it is not fully documented still. We will attempt to construct the archaeological topography of the cave, collecting the data from previous studies and from our own survey. The data from the literature contains several misinterpretations according to our in situ examinations, because the authors has limited or incorrect information on the speleological circumstances. The cave is an important archaeological site compared to the sites on the surface, and other neighboring caves. The only archaeological site known on the surface is at the Aggtelek entrance, and the Domica and Ördög-lyuk (Čertova diera) are the known caves with archaeological finds. The Baradla Cave System is a hydrologically continuous unit from the Domica Cave in Slovakia to Jósvafő, but the archaeological site can only be associated with Aggtelek, because the Jósvafő entrance was opened only recently, and the connection with Domica is hardly passable, at same places only underwater connections exists. There is a clear logical connection to the neolithic site at the Domica, but these are separate sites – the distance is 2 km. The strong erosion of the karstic surface makes the archaeological sites in the caves more important – nothing is preserved on the surface. The finds are usually washed down to a cave, but that can not be considered an archaeological site in a cave. In the smaller caves the strata and other phenomena could be easily damaged because of an improper excavation. In the Baradla Cave the strata and other phenomena are intact on large areas. The cave is located at the Aggtelek karstic region. There are only temporary lakes and streams close to the Aggtelek entrance. Secular changes in the climate or the geomorphology (as filling up of the gullies) could result in different surface hydrological situations after a few centuries. This obviously affects the habitability of the region. We consider the water systems in the caves more stable.

  • Issue Year: 132/2007
  • Issue No: 1
  • Page Range: 267-288
  • Page Count: 22
  • Language: Hungarian