Comparative evaluation of actual nutrition practices and macro- and micronutrients consumption of athletes in a range of sport types Cover Image

Сравнительная оценка фактического питания и обеспечения макро- и микронутриентами спортсменов различных видов спорта
Comparative evaluation of actual nutrition practices and macro- and micronutrients consumption of athletes in a range of sport types

Author(s): Yeldana Yerzhankyzy Yerzhanova, Zhanna Bekbolatkyzy Sabyrbek, Kazys Milašius
Subject(s): Health and medicine and law
Published by: Новосибирский государственный педагогический университет
Keywords: Sportsmen; Actual diet; Energy value of food; Carbohydrates; Fats; Proteins; Vitamins; Micro elements; Macro elements;

Summary/Abstract: Introduction. The growing popularity of sports for endurance, various styles of wrestling and game types allows athletes to show their physical qualities. The success of athletes doing these sports depends on the level of development of aerobic, anaerobic and alaktate energy systems which provide muscle energy. Athletes’ diets affect their health, performance, and adaptation to various environmental factors. Modern system of sports training recognizes nutrition as one of the leading factors contributing to enhanced sporting performance and increased regenerative processes during intense muscular activities. The literature review shows that study of actual nutrition practices of athletes in a range of sport types is significant during pre-competition training. Only after assessing athletes’ nutrition practices, it is possible to develop a planned dietary strategy to satisfy the requirements of training process and to enhance sports performance at competitions. In Kazakhstan, the results of studies on athletes’ nutrition practices showed that their actual diet did not always meet the requirements of rational nutrition for athletes. The relevance of this issue has determined the purpose of this study. The objective of the research is to study actual nutrition practices of elite-level athletes and to evaluate the provision of necessary nutrients. Materials and Methods. The research was carried out in 2017 and involved 15 triathletes of Kazakhstan national team, 15 judo wrestlers of Kazakhstan national team and 15 players of Almaty volleyball team called Burevestnik. The participants were aged between 19 and 30 years. The data were collected via a survey on athletes’ actual nutrition for 3 days (24 hours a day). The data on the consumed food and dishes were recorded. Results. Chemical composition and energy value of consumed food products were estimated according to Dietary Reference Values for chemical composition of Kazakhstan's food products. A systematic analysis of the composition of nutrients and their energy values was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS, version 16), the typical syntax and tabulation algorithms modified for the purpose of the study. Conclusions. The research has shown that actual nutrition practices of the elite-level athletes under study satisfy their physiological needs in food and biologically active substances. We observed that basic nutrients are not sufficiently balanced in athletes’ middle food rations. Part of the energy coming from fats is increased and makes up 33.44 per cent on average for triathletes, 49.00 per cent for judo wrestlers, and 35.20 per cent for volleyball players, while part of the energy produced from carbohydrates is understated, and is only 31.70 per cent for judo wrestlers, which does not correspond to the recommended daily rate. There is no shortage in vitamins and minerals detected. At the same time, the content of such elements as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, significantly exceeds the recommended standards. The content of vitamins A, B3, B6, B12, H and C also significantly exceed the recommended daily allowance. Literature sources believe that athletes performing high physical activity require an increased amount of vitamins and minerals, but there is no scientific evidence justifying it.