The problem of fine tropos in Christian philosophical and aesthetic discourse (Part ІІ) Cover Image

Проблема образотворчого тропосу в християнському філософсько-естетичному дискурсі (частина ІІ)
The problem of fine tropos in Christian philosophical and aesthetic discourse (Part ІІ)

Author(s): Elena Vyacheslavova
Subject(s): Christian Theology and Religion, Visual Arts, Semiology, Philosophy of Religion, Ontology
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: cosmic allegorism; verbal allegorism; actual allegorism; literal meaning / spiritual sense; aesthetics of immanentism; hidden allegory; polysemy;

Summary/Abstract: The article discusses the semiotic implications of problems of visual allegory in the Western Christian philosophical and aesthetic thought. The role of aesthetics of immanentism in forming of hidden allegory is shown in the article. The author reveals the differences in the theoretical justification of the Byzantine and Western sacred image, leading to a divergence in the interpretation of the problems of polysemy, ability to depict, the autonomy of the image, the formation of two different models of fine tropos. This research is based on the mediator function of image, which dominated in the medieval art and determined the specificity of its semiotic status. The set of concepts which was used by representatives of the Christian theological and aesthetic thought in the descriptions of allegory is analyzed. It is shown that in the Eastern Christian writings of the Church Fathers, dedicated to the theology of the icon, there is no concept of "metaphor" and "allegory", while the representatives of the Western Christian thought differentiate the two types of allegory – "allegoria in factis" and "allegoria in verbis". It is revealed that the last type belongs to the field of art as a secular, according to the teachings of Thomas Aquinas, the literal scope of the expression, not the spiritual sense. The author reveals the underlying "allegoria in verbis" attitude "secular – sacred", which converts the primary meaning in fiction, displaceable in favor of the secondary meaning. It is shown that "allegoria in factis" is based on the ratio of "the sacred – sacred", leading to the conservation of both the literal and symbolic meanings. It is identified the mechanisms of metaphor in art, on the example of the relation of the medieval literary genre "exempla" with Western Christian sacred art o that time. It is shown that the source of metaphors and "exempla", and the visual arts in the temple was the element of preaching, setting the world face to face with the transcendent and to modeling the relationship of the secular with the sacred, the language of which is equivocation of tropos. "Exempla" in literature and the phenomena of art of the Western Christian are regarded as "the event of the meeting" of the scientist, the book Christianity and folklore, generating a model of rhetorical situation in determining of Lotman. We consider some examples of fine art tropos in the temple art, including the Ukrainian Orthodox iconography. The article differentiated attitude to shaped polysemy, formed in the Eastern and Western Christian philosophical and aesthetic discourse. The author describes the Eastern Christian theology of the image as an element of church dogma, and the icon as a direct evidence of the truth of the Gospel. The problem of polysemy in Eastern Christian theology was eliminated on the basis of decisions of Sixth Ecumenical Council, who rejected the need to use the Old Testament scenes in the iconography. For the Western Christian Church polysemy, widespread in the temple visual arts, was not a problem due to non-participation of art sphere in theological dogma. The article shows a different ratio of images and words in the art, given by the Eastern and Western Christian tradition. In the first one theology of image justifies ontological unity of word and image. The proposed material allows to identify opportunities and specific intra-semiotic translation: Western sacred image, which is not carrying dogmatic loads, allowed greater freedom of iconographic, suggesting the possibility of a literal translation of words in a figurative metaphor. The mechanism of this transfer is considered on the basis of the iconography of the "New Testament Trinity". Considering the "case Viskovatov" as an example of the collision of two models for the establishing of the sacred image, and two models of fine tropos, the author comes to the conclusion that the Eastern Christian theology of the image is much less promoted the processes of formation of tropos in the visual arts and the establishment of an autonomous semiotic status of the image, rather than a rationalist type of communication of word and image as the basis of allegorization, adopted in the West.

  • Issue Year: 2013
  • Issue No: 2
  • Page Range: 22-28
  • Page Count: 7
  • Language: Ukrainian