Dictionary of specialized terminology for art-examination of Sevres porcelain XVIII – the beginning of the XIX century Cover Image

Словник спеціалізованої термінології для мистецтвознавчої експертизи севрського фарфору XVIII – першої третини XIX століття
Dictionary of specialized terminology for art-examination of Sevres porcelain XVIII – the beginning of the XIX century

Author(s): Iasmina Kryvushenko
Subject(s): Visual Arts, 18th Century, 19th Century, Sociology of Art
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: Sevres porcelain; art expertise; art terminology;

Summary/Abstract: The article investigates problems of specialized base for art inspection of Sevres porcelain XVIII – the first third of the XIX century. The stable definitions in the Ukrainian language and foreign borrowings are considered. We propose a list of terms and their description needed in glossary of Sevres expertise and regarding their use. Today Sevres porcelain is very expensive and therefore the number of fakes outnumbers the original ones. That is why the examination of art products of Sevres manufactory requires deep knowledge of the subject. Therefore it is necessary to form a clear conceptual and terminological framework. Required concept and nominate exist in French and Ukranian sources, but their meaning is often significantly different. The article reviews terms that should be included as list of existing ones in Ukrainian areal. It is the terminology of identifying fakes. According to Jacques Pefe book "Ceramics: Examination and restoration" Paris 2010 [6] counterfeiting can be divided into three groups. The first is the old way, which (intentionally or not) was wrong attributed. The second group includes ancient objects forged or burnt again. The third group includes completely fake things. To distinguish the works by this classification we should develop a detailed terminology, basic concepts first. In particular definitions of art. Ukrainian scientific literature doesn’t not present work devoted to systematization of nominee of artexamination of Sevres porcelain. The problem of terminology in art studies in a broad sense is seen in the work of A.M. Beekeeping "Visual Arts" [2]. More aimed at systematization of topics concerning terminology it is a porcelain handbook of G. Drapalyuk "Catalogization and scientific processing of western european artistic porcelain" [1]. Main nominee mentioned in this article are next: Apocryphal – a subject which identification is doubtful. Authentic – a subject that really is made by the author or factory in a specific historical period. Counterfeiting – fraudulent or counterfeit copy, of ancient or modern art. Period – period of time when the object was made. AM dictionary Beekeeping "Visual Arts" terms falsification, forgery and counterfeiting interpreted as follows. Counterfeiting is the art of perfect copies of the author's original work of art, the same material on the same basis and the same means without any deviations. Usually, the fake is made to displace the original or for sale [2]. Anyway in this article the author tends to systemize all collected terms in way to help an attribution process. So after main terms we pass to reviewing main technologies of creating porcelain objects. Then the author regards main technologies for creating different coloring covers and decorations particular for Sevres porcelain manufacture: Terminology materials of the crock. Over the years and the use of porcelain in different countries, there were several versions of this material. Even from the outside, they differ significantly. The mystery of the true composition of Chinese porcelain have always maintained that he first invented. In Europe, thanks to attempts to unravel the secret of Chinese born one after another similar vitreous porcelain mass (Medici porcelain, soft porcelain French and others). In the history of European arts and crafts all kinds of porcelain and similar materials have their important place at the level of real porcelain, which was invented later. Each of these materials has its unique recipe and name. Further, we consider those that relate directly to the Sevres porcelain factory. Hard porcelain is a term commonly called porcelain. Usually it consists of two basic materials: kaolin (pure white clay – refractory, oily and quite plastic) and feldspar. These basic substances attached quartz or sand. Fallen temperature exceeds 1350 C °. Properties porcelain proportions depend on two main ingredient: the greater the mass of kaolin, the harder it melt and so it is harder. Glaze is composed of the same substances as the pot, but in different proportions. Through this, they can be combined quite tight. In French literature as a synonym for the term "pate dure". Soft porcelain – is any kind of porcelain, which burned at a temperature below 1350 C °. There are two types of soft porcelain. The first is the one that contains less kaolin than hard. The second – a frytove porcelain, its mass does not contain kaolin, it is not porcelain raw materials: glassy mass. For example, a variety of French soft-paste porcelain "pat-tandr" (fr. Pate-tendre). What was used in the Royal Sevres factory during the XVIII century. Only in 1768 began working in part with a solid mass. 1673 soft porcelain in France invented ruanets Louis Potter. For decorating porcelain we use fireproof paint, glaze and gold. Painting on porcelain is possible by refractory paints for his production needs fallen.

  • Issue Year: 2015
  • Issue No: 2
  • Page Range: 151-155
  • Page Count: 5
  • Language: Ukrainian