The phenomenon of

Феномен "шістдесятництва" в українській культурі: шлях від тоталітаризму до незалежності
The phenomenon of "the sixties" in Ukrainian culture: the way to the independence of totalitarianism

Author(s): Olga Volodymyrivna Ovcharuk
Subject(s): Government/Political systems, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: sixties; totalitarianism; Ukrainian culture; anthropological paradigm; methodology of cultural studies;

Summary/Abstract: This paper examines the phenomenon of "sixties" in Ukrainian culture of the second half of the twentieth century. It is shown that the study indicated the phenomenon is relevant based on interdisciplinarity by bringing conceptual provisions anthropological paradigm as a methodological tool of cultural knowledge.. Based on the conceptual provisions that the key figure of history is the man, whose role permeates all historical and cultural fabric of social, civic and historical processes, the article proved that the disclosure of their content becomes productive from the standpoint of life conflicts and perceptions of specific individuals of certain historical era . Therefore, it is an anthropological dimension of research historical and cultural processes involved was to cover the period of the spiritual life of contemporary Ukrainian society, called "Khrushchev thaw". The second half of the twentieth century Ukrainian history and culture is difficult and ambiguous stage, characterized by its polar perception of events and processes. The liberalization of both public and political life, as well as brief purification of society from the effects of "personality cult" has provided opportunities for creative expression intelligentsia that has created a unique phenomenon of "sixties" – a powerful intellectual and creative movement, which was designed on the philosophy, literature, journalism, science, painting, music, cinema, art song and others. Against the background of the aforementioned processes in Ukraine, a new galaxy of creative and scientific intelligentsia, that started the revival of interrupted cultural traditions of modernist 20-ies of the 20th century and laid the foundation for the formation of national cultural trends in the development of Ukrainian culture 60-ies of the 20th century. This generation of young people – poets, writers, critics, translators, artists, scientists, students, workers of different beliefs and attitudes that began his career on the verge of 50-60's. Immediately attracted the attention of not only talent, but also courageous citizenship and national dignity. In culture and art in the study period according to modern art O. Coast, there were two opposing trends. First, the progressive trend, there was an attempt to overcome dogmatism, expanding creative possibilities artists. Significantly weakened the ideological grip of socialist method, arts symbolizes the protest against the leveling of personality, which was cultivated by the totalitarian regime. Many works of artists problem as "man-present", "artist and Government" settled in the intellectual and spiritual plane. Second, conservative, trend Culture 1960 was in keeping Stalinist methods of ideological pressure on intellectuals. Questions of culture and art Khrushchev personally supervised. His statements and actions were often contradictory. During his leadership, the country was made a lot of shameful failures. Against the background of the new socio-political situation in the territory of Ukrainian culture in the second half of the twentieth century began the processes associated with the formation of powerful active intellectually creative and democratic national movements. They were a manifestation of the transformation in the scientific, cultural, artistic and political life of Ukrainian society. Among them are the following: innovation philosophers in the sixties philosophical knowledge, appeals artists writers, musicians, and artists to the sources of national culture, the deployment of legal opposition to the totalitarian regime of the sixties dissidents. An outstanding phenomenon scholarship Ukraine 60-ies of the 20th century. Kiev became a philosophical school. Its formation is associated with the activities and work of outstanding scientist Paul Kopnin. Jesus and the Institute of Philosophy was implemented a broad, innovative research program forms and principles of scientific knowledge, rethinking of key categories of scientific knowledge "problem", "idea", "hypothesis", "theory", "scientific research" and so on. Philosophical achievement P. Kopnin and his school received recognition not only in the USSR, but also beyond. The defining feature of Ukrainian cultural space activities of Ukrainian patriots was the sixties. Among the most notable figures of the national cultural and political resistance movement is I .Dziuba, I .Drach, M. Vingranovsky, I. Svitlychny, E. Sverstyuk, V. Stus, V. Symonenko, L. Kostenko, V. Chornovil, V. Shevchuk and many others. They tried to stop the policy of total Russification, Ukrainian national consciousness to deepen, broaden the national-political and cultural rights of the Ukrainian people. The leading activity in the sixties is a cultural trend. Its representatives – artists A. Horska, I. Honchar, P. Zalyvakha, V. Zaretsky, L. Semykina, G. Sevruk and artists Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa, Lviv and other cities of Ukraine. They developed folklore and ethnographic motifs, symbols and historical poetics, created a series of portraits of contemporaries, increased interest in art 1920-1930's. The second half of the 60-ies of the 20th century actually stopped the development of a viable branch of Ukrainian culture, nurtured by "the Sixties". However, a few years talented young people, as part of a totalitarian culture, has formed its alternative – the culture of national revival and independence

  • Issue Year: 2015
  • Issue No: 1
  • Page Range: 21-28
  • Page Count: 8
  • Language: Ukrainian