The ideological aspects of Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War (2011–2017) Cover Image

Ideologiczne aspekty zaangażowania Rosji w syryjskiej wojnie domowej 2011–2017
The ideological aspects of Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War (2011–2017)

Author(s): Krzysztof Kościelniak
Subject(s): International relations/trade, Military policy, Politics and religion, History of Islam, Contemporary Islamic Thought, Inter-Ethnic Relations, Ethnic Minorities Studies, Politics and Identity
Published by: Oficyna Wydawnicza KA AFM
Keywords: foreign policy of the Russian Federation; foreign policy concept of the US; Syrian Civil War; Alawites; Oriental Christians; The Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party; religious freedom in the Middle East; pol

Summary/Abstract: This article presents an overview of the principal results of research on the historically-oriented policy of Russia’s activity in the Middle East in the context of the case of Syrian- Ba’thist secularism. Firstly, supported by Russia the secular approach of the Syrian Baath Party has provided integration of the Alawites, Christians and other minorities into the political system and society. Secondly, Russia has used memories of many religious warfare and Islamic (Sunni) persecution of Alawites and Orthodox Christians. Using this kind of collective memories, Russian policy has linked many Christian nations. Thirdly, one of the misunderstandings is that the United States and some EU countries judge Assad and Syria by the modern standards of post 1990 Western Europe; Putin and Russia are judging matters in the context of over two hundred years of confl icts and persecutions. Probably, it is a new round of competition between the Anglo-Saxon liberal optimism and historical Russian pessimism. The problem is that in the case of Assad’s fall Washington and none of its Western allies are able to provide long-term security for Syrian minorities according to their democratic standards. Paradoxically, the Alawites and Christians automatically see Russia as a natural protector of human rights at least in terms of religious freedom. Unfortunately, today’s western support for ‘democracies’ in the Middle East (Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Libya) has been unsuccessful.

  • Issue Year: XIV/2017
  • Issue No: 3
  • Page Range: 233-258
  • Page Count: 26
  • Language: Polish