4000-2000 BC in Hungary: The Age of Transformation Cover Image
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4000-2000 BC in Hungary: The Age of Transformation
4000-2000 BC in Hungary: The Age of Transformation

Author(s): Tünde Horváth
Subject(s): Archaeology
Published by: Universitatea »1 Decembrie 1918« Alba Iulia
Keywords: Transformation; mobility; variability; Middle and Late Copper Age; Early Bronze Age

Summary/Abstract: In this article, I focus on the time and the archaeological cultures of three large, independent, and consecutive archaeological periods: theMiddle Copper Age, Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age. To decide what is common or just similar amongst them - directly or indirectly, organically or randomly, culturally, technologically or genetically - is very difficult at this level: we need more conventional archaeological and new archaeometric data. By focusing on ten important points (mapping, relative chronology, absolute chronology, settlement networks, economy, inventions, typology, technology, ritual life, and mortuary practices) on a level larger than the concept of cultures, the analyses manage to prove relationships and continuity amongst these three periods and their archaeological cultures. From 4000 BC until 2000 BC we can find many common or similar determining archaeological points, which can be explained by natural phenomena such as climatic or geographical conditions which forced these cultures to be more mobile, flexible and open towards other cultures and areas. In order to see and understand the real causes and find common patterns in human behaviours and societies, we have to adopt wider perspectives in our analysis (include more periods, more cultures, larger territories and a longer time frame). From these perspectives, the 2000 years analysed can tell us about uniformity in the territory of Hungary: the Age of Transformation, between 4000 and 2000 BC.

  • Issue Year: 20/2016
  • Issue No: 2
  • Page Range: 51-112
  • Page Count: 62
  • Language: English