The existential analysis Dasein" and the problem of the truth of existence: the peculiarities of the dis-course of early and late M. Heidegger Cover Image

The existential analysis Dasein" and the problem of the truth of existence: the peculiarities of the dis-course of early and late M. Heidegger

Author(s): Alla Zaluzhna
Subject(s): Contemporary Philosophy, Existentialism, Phenomenology
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: existention; Dasein; existence; freedom; truth of the existence; aleteiya;

Summary/Abstract: Phenomenology is the existential philosophizing of the twentieth century which includes the using of the term "existence" that accumulates in it. The shifts are connected with critical rethinking of the classical rationalist tradition in contrast between subject and object and disregard to everything sensual and individual, trying to find new grounds of human existence. In such case the person is not an isolated being, but always stays in relations with people, nature and life. The person doesn’t have only existence, but also shapes its attitude to it, that’s why it is the unique and the only possible existent which seeks existence and its rootedness in it. In this context Heidegger’s philosophical heritage be-comes significant and relevant.So M. Heidegger, being armed with a phenomenological method, created the fundamental ontology as the hu-man existence phenomenology, "existential analysis of Dasein". Thus he made a radical turn in the modern philosophical thought. Basing not on the classical ontology but on the existential ontology with a focus on the problem being what needs the human being, he founded a new phenomenological existential trend in philosophy which heavily influenced the formation of anthropological, existentialist, hermeneutic and philosophical studies. That is why good prospects are being laid for further development of a new ontological reorientation with legitimization of the human inner world problems in the plane of the meaning of its existence, the justification of personal presence in the world and responsibility facing life. So the M. Heidegger’s fundamental ontology and late existentialism appear as extension of Husserl’s concept of func-tional intentionality, which has ontological existential characteristics.In this regard, human existence is unlocked and opened to the world and appears as "being-in-the world". This open-ness to the world is caused by three basic categories. They are the "mood", "understanding" and "language". These categories are constitutive existential modes. According to the German philosopher understanding is identical to the openness of Dasein, because to exist in the world and to understand are same. Thus, according to M. Heidegger, E. Husserl, analyzing the subject in the surface of sequence of the consciousness and constitution of meanings acts, does not resolve the problem of the onto-logical status of the transcendental Ego. Therefore, in the meaning of Dasein there is available indication of the ontological in-terpretation of the being. It helps to deploy the problem of its existence from the existentionalism of its existence. Therefore, intentionally indifferent attitude changes ontological existential nature of caring contemplation. The intentionality from the way of relationship with the act of consciousness turned into a way of Dasein attitude to life. In such way, E. Husserl’s reduction and intentionality transforms into the ability of Dasein. It is always directed to nothingness until death. But if Husserl’s sense is de-rivative from universal "logical" structures of pure consciousness, M. Heidegger’s meaning appears implicated to existence. Therefore to understand the meaning of life we should discover the meaning of human being as a temporary process of the existence, and update the understanding of the life sense.However, even in the presence of significant differences of wide semantic range between early and late M. Hei-degger the main problem of the research "Being and Time" remains a leading orientation and the subject of the constant philosophical appeal. You can agree with the philosopher, as before and after his turning, the center of the author's re-flection is the problem of "the life sense", that in the horizon of "Being and Time" explicates by the existential analytics of Dasein. After the "rotation" is interpreted as the truth of existence and the possibility of being closer to the sense of being in its close association with a man.In early M. Heidegger the problem of the sense of being is tracked through the prism of being in its own experi-ments considering own variants of its implementation. This is a reason of dynamic Dasein, which has never been what it is and that is why it is always a project, outline due to this the existence is the openness. The prerequisite of the open-ness is temporality, interpreted as historicity. The "Me" is the existence. Its essence lies in the historicity being, man is opened to the destiny of life.The late M. Heidegger develops the concept of the human existence humanism in the sense of being, question-ing and finding meaning of personal presence in the world, dialogue with being, listening, care and staying in proximity and being opened towards it.On the grounds of carrying out the comparative analysis of the problems of human existence in M. Heidegger’s works "before" and "after" the turn, the theoretical thesis were motivated which permit to do phenomenological and onto-logical rethinking of the traditional ethic and aesthetic categories and to realize the role and place of nonclassical pat-terns of philosophical discourse of the ontological reflection of the end of the XIX-XX centuries in the modern field of hu-manitarian knowledge.