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Stratigrafia konceptu Smart City
Stratigraphy of the Smart City Concept

Author(s): Ján Legény, Peter Morgenstein, Robert Špaček
Subject(s): Fine Arts / Performing Arts
Published by: Historický ústav SAV, v. v. i.
Keywords: smart cities; urban fabric; infrastructure; smart governance; smart mobility;

Summary/Abstract: The paradigm of the city is now undergoing substantial change against a background of economic, technological and social transformations caused by globalization. The traditional postindustrial city is to be replaced by the city characterized by such attributes as green, sustainable, open, rational, ecological, ideal, creative, global, and generic... – and the notion of Smart City is the overarching summation of all of these characteristics. Bearing in mind that the English adjective smart is replaced in Slovak by the equivalent intelligent, the question remains whether an inanimate entity (like the city in the traditional thinking) can be intelligent. That is, if we define intelligent as possessing or displaying the ability to learn or understand things, or to deal with new or difficult situations. No precise definition of the Smart City concept can be said yet to exist. Perhaps the most useful statement might define it as a district, urban fragment, and ultimately an entire city which is energy efficient, which saves resources, produces minimum emissions, and provides the highest quality of life for its residents. The basis is a wellfunctioning infrastructure at all network levels.According to the authors of this article, the concept of the Smart City can be divided into several distinct layers (strata). This layering / stratification is evaluated by a series of vertical sections, aiming to analyse the interplay, overlaps and in uences, mostly on urban society. Does thinking about the Smart City concept really start at the edge of the town, or rather within its environmental and economic substructures? Is it possible to speak of the “smart region” or even “smart country”? The authors present the selected layers and their essential characteristics, the impact on the lives of people and on the environment.Smart information technologiesAt present, it is generally admitted that the concept of the Smart City is based on ideas taken from information technology and data acquisition (“real-time information”). In that regard, one can use terms such as “wired city” or “digital city”. Some authorities use also theories such as “systems of systems” or “scaling laws”. The inhabitants themselves become transformed into online data sources – “humans as sensors”. On one hand, these technologies may very well contribute to increased safety and energy savings, yet on the other hand the phenomena of social engineering, or the “Big Brother e_ect / society” is increasingly discussed. The primary issues are – and will become more and more – the laws regarding data collection, cyber security, control of “digital rights” of users, or “data democracy”. Moreover, the urban democracy or urban propriety acquires another dimension. Online maps created in GIS systems (Geographic Information System) reveal sophisticated details such as the solar potential of the roofs of buildings (solar cadastre), the current traffic intensity, alongside the usual data on the location of greenery in the city, the intensity of noise, data on land use planning, advertising equipment, or even the most banal data originating from social networks (Twitter, Facebook, ...) monitoring the most photographed places or the online position of friends in the city. In this context, one can speak of the mapping the city or of a new discipline of psychogeography making use of psychogeographic algorithms. The downside of a city in which processes are triggered autonomously based on data obtained from various sensors (smell, pollution, seismicity, presence of explosives, shooting, etc.), is that it may be thrown into chaos with extensive consequences by cyberattacks simulating natural disasters or local accidents.Smart governanceThe role of human perception in conjunction with artificial intelligence is highlighted by Mostashari and his team through the term of the “cognitive city”. If one is speaking of the inhabitants as sensors, the cognitive city is precisely based on this principle – the ow of information from inhabitants (users of the service) to service providers. Citizens became active data generators, as well as active consumers of urban information. Cognition allows the cities to analyse the mediumandLongterm policy impacts. In addition, the principle of the public-private-partnership offers opportunities for projects exceeding the investment potential of public funds. Here, the existence of urban development plans with definition of mediumand longterm visions and goals is essential. New trends in the future of Internet services and applications are grouped according to the basic significance. For the Smart City concept, the following three have special significance: Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Services (IoS), and Internet of People (IoP).The paradigm of the city is now undergoing substantial change against a background of economic, technological and social transformations caused by globalization. The traditional postindustrial city is to be replaced by the city characterized by such attributes as green, sustainable, open, rational, ecological, ideal, creative, global, and generic... – and the notion of Smart City is the overarching summation of all of these characteristics. Bearing in mind that the English adjective smart is replaced in Slovak by the equivalent intelligent, the question remains whether an inanimate entity (like the city in the traditional thinking) can be intelligent. That is, if we define intelligent as possessing or displaying the ability to learn or understand things, or to deal with new or difficult situations.No precise definition of the Smart City concept can be said yet to exist. Perhaps the most useful statement might define it as a district, urban fragment, and ultimately an entire city which is energy efficient, which saves resources, produces minimum emissions, and provides the highest quality of life for its residents. The basis is a wellfunctioning infrastructure at all network levels.According to the authors of this article, the concept of the Smart City can be divided into several distinct layers (strata). This layering / stratification is evaluated by a series of vertical sections, aiming to analyse the interplay, overlaps and in uences, mostly on urban society. Does thinking about the Smart City concept really start at the edge of the town, or rather within its environmental and economic substructures? Is it possible to speak of the “smart region” or even “smart country”? The authors present the selected layers and their essential characteristics, the impact on the lives of people and on the environment.Smart information technologiesAt present, it is generally admitted that the concept of the Smart City is based on ideas taken from information technology and data acquisition (“real-time information”). In that regard, one can use terms such as “wired city” or “digital city”. Some authorities use also theories such as “systems of systems” or “scaling laws”. The inhabitants themselves become transformed into online data sources – “humans as sensors”. On one hand, these Technologies may very well contribute to increased safety and energy savings, yet on the other hand the phenomena of social engineering, or the “Big Brother e_ect / society” is increasingly discussed. The primary issues are – and will become more and more – the laws regarding data collection, cyber security, control of “digital rights”of users, or “data democracy”. Moreover, the urban democracy or urban propriety acquires another dimension. Online maps created in GIS systems (Geographic Information System) reveal sophisticated details such as the solar potential of the roofs of buildings (solar cadastre), the current traffic intensity, alongside the usual data on the location of greenery in the city, the intensity of noise, data on land use planning, advertising equipment, or even the most banal data originating from social networks (Twitter, Facebook, ...) monitoring the most photographed places or the online position of friends in the city. In this context, one can speak of the mapping the city or of a new discipline of psychogeography making use of psychogeographic algorithms. The downside of a city in which processes are triggered autonomously based on data obtained from various sensors (smell, pollution, seismicity, presence of explosives, shooting, etc.), is that it may be thrown into chaos with extensive consequences by cyberattacks simulating natural disasters or local accidents.Smart governanceThe role of human perception in conjunction with artificial intelligence is highlighted by Mostashari and his team through the term of the “cognitive city”. If one is speaking of the inhabitants as sensors, the cognitive city is precisely based on this principle – the ow of information from inhabitants (users of the service) to service providers. Citizens became active data generators, as well as active consumers of urban information. Cognition allows the cities to analyse the mediumand longterm policy impacts. In addition, the principle of the public-private-partnership offers opportunities for projects exceeding the investment potential of public funds. Here, the existence of urban development plans with definition of mediumand longterm visions and goals is essential. New trends in the future of Internet services and applications are grouped according to the basic significance. For the Smart City concept, the following three have special significance: Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Services (IoS), and Internet of People (IoP).Smart mobilityYona Friedman has already argued that objects in the city form an “obstacle city” – a city of obstructions and enemies. His wellknown concepts of “fioating cities” from the second half of the 20th Century, particularly the 1960s (La ville spatiale), were situated over the city, above this built infrastructure. Should Smart Cities be mainly based on bicycle transport (Copenhagen, Amsterdam) or encourage the use of electric vehicles and smart public transport? London is closing its city centre, and charging for entrance of vehicles (the emission tax). In addition, the latest technologies play a key role in transportation: e.g., “Smart (environmentally friendly) mobility” such as the solar cycling route in Amsterdam, contactless power supply via the road surface (wireless echarging technology, energy roads), smart parking (detection of vacant parking lots, time saving, reduction of CO2) or the nowcommon optimization of traffic control – prioritizing trams, public transportation. We can imagine that in the Smart City, the public transport system would register all passengers boarding and alighting, and at the end of the month charges the users based on their use of this service (afterall – if the public transportation should not be free of charge in the Smart City). Monitoring (measurement) can be operated on several levels.Smart urban fabric and smart resourcesThe built substance of the city can also be smart. In addition to the use of traditional renewable energy sources (photovoltaic and photo thermal conversion of solar radiation, wind energy), individual structures can use intelligent materials (smart building materials), such as selfrepairing concrete, permeable concrete (asphalt) for water retention measures, thermal insulation based on bioingredients (hemp, bamboo) or recent technology like 3D printing and smart management software suitable for wholebuilding operations (eg. Smart Struxure™ Building Operation). The trajectory of many products and materials ends in an urban environment, where they are systematically built into the structure of the city; hence the resulting enormous material condensed space represents a large amount of secondary energy and material resources. By smart sourcing and reusing of these secondary sources, “urban mining” can play a vital role in terms of sustainability and optimization of material circulation, thereby reducing the city’s ecological footprint. The fundamental modules of Smart Cities are smart buildings; in this respect, the software package BIM (Building Information Modelling) represents a key tool for smart design. The generation of energyef ficient urban structures on the principle of solar power or energy cooperativeness of urban structures was already mentioned elsewhere by the authors. Buildings must change from energy consumers to energy producers, and the main decisive factor will not be the energy efficiency of individual buildings, but rather the energy efficiency of neighbourhoods (resp. urban fragments) in total. The aim is to work with the obtained energy in real time and with the utmost efficiency.

  • Issue Year: 50/2016
  • Issue No: 1-2
  • Page Range: 4-17
  • Page Count: 14
  • Language: Slovak