Air Pollution and Public Health in a Megalopolis: a Case Study of Moscow Cover Image

Air Pollution and Public Health in a Megalopolis: a Case Study of Moscow
Air Pollution and Public Health in a Megalopolis: a Case Study of Moscow

Author(s): Boris Aleksandrovich Revich, Simon Levanovich Avaliani, Gregory John Simons
Subject(s): Economy, Geography, Regional studies
Published by: Институт экономики Уральского отделения Российской академии наук
Keywords: megalopolis, cities; Moscow; human ecology; environmental health; air pollution; risk assessment; climate change; heat waves; mortality;

Summary/Abstract: A rapidly growing number of megalopolises in the world leads to some substantial problems to environmentalconditions of their population. One of these problems is the intensification of motor traffic, which contributesto air pollution measured as average concentrations of several air pollutants and climate change inthe form of more frequent heat waves and cold spells. The present study analyzes the selected indicators ofenvironmental health in Moscow, the largest Russian megalopolis which contributes for adoption of soundand evidence-based health risk management policies. Individual carcinogenic risks attributed to traffic emissionsvaried across the study area of 400 km2 between 3×10 -4 and 6.53×10 -4 which is typical for most megalopolisesin the economically developed countries. However, the carcinogenic risks in some districts may exceedthe threshold of 10 -3 which is regarded as unacceptable. The total population carcinogenic risk for 3.5million people who lived in the study area with intense road traffic was 23 additional cases of malignant neoplasmsper year or 1513 cases per 70 years. Additional mortality during the extreme heat episode in the summerof 2010, when forest and peat fires caused exceptionally high levels of smog in Moscow, reached 11,000deaths. The measures to be taken by the executive authorities include informing the residents about the onsetof extreme heat by means of an early warning system, and rating the relative severity of heat and air pollutionaccording to a 4-point scale.

  • Issue Year: 12/2016
  • Issue No: 4
  • Page Range: 1069-1078
  • Page Count: 10
  • Language: English