An Analysis of Verses Related to Shafaat in the Quranic Integrity Cover Image

Kur’ân Bütünlüğünde Şefaatle İlgili Âyetlerin Tahlili
An Analysis of Verses Related to Shafaat in the Quranic Integrity

Author(s): Yasin Pişgin
Subject(s): Hermeneutics, Qur’anic studies
Published by: Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İlahyat Fakültesi
Keywords: The Qur’an; Shafaat; Prayer; Istighfar; Wasila; Tawassul;

Summary/Abstract: Today as it was in the past, faith in shafaat is accepted especially the ehli sunnah and some segments of the Muslim scholars do not, and both sides base their arguments on the Qur’an. When the Qur’an is examined, it will be seen that some of the verses related to this theme refer to the existence of shafaat and the other part of it speaks about the absence of shafaat. The Qur’an is a divine book that superstitious cannot get close to it in any way. One of the most important characteristics of the Qur’an is that there are no contradictory information and provisions that lie against each other. When viewed from this perspective, the Qur’an was taken as a reference for both denial and proscription of shafaat. Both the approval and rejection of the Qur’an may look paradoxical, which is incompatible with the divine word. This complex picture leads to determining two different types of shafaat which is accepted and rejected according to the Qur’an and the differences between these two approaches. Therefore, this confusing result leads also to examine the related verses holistically. The subject of this research is formed by the phenomenon of intercession, which has been proven and denied in the entirety of the Quran, and also the relationship of proven intercession to supplication and seeking forgiveness. Within the scope of the article, the verses about intercession in the Qur’an will be discussed in the line of rejection-acceptance, and their analysis will be made in terms of both context and wording. In this way, after the definition of shafaat, an examination will be made of the types of shafaat, that Allah forbids and does not forbid. That is the types of shafaat confirmed and rejected on the line of acceptance and rejection. The shafaat that is denied in the entirety of the Quran (that is, shafaat, whose existence was rejected in some verses) will become clear that it is the shafaat that the polytheists attributed to idols or a shafaat that expresses a vain expectation of mercy. The existence of this type of shafaat in the Quran is rejected, since it is a shafaat that the idolaters ascribed to beings other than Allah, and it consists of the anticipation of the unbelievers. In our opinion, based on the verses that rejected the opinion of false shafaat for the polytheists, denying shafaat completely and claiming the origins of shafaat without being found in the Quran is not correct. It can be said that the claim of “the phenomenon of shafaat does not exist in the Quran” relies on the verses that reject the shafaat views of the polytheists and unbelievers and the approach that is far from a holistic approach to the Quran. Because if the Quran is comprehensively investigated, it will be seen that God did not completely abolish shafaat, and also it will be seen that it will be achieved. Also in the Quran is the concept of shafaat, which differs from the understanding of the polytheists and the unbelievers, and it will be achieved, is Allah’s willing. According to the Quran, we can say in the shafaat that God has permitted consists of two kinds: the leave that was given to those who interceded and were interceded. The permission given to the shafaat is related to the dimension of the person to be, and the minimum condition for giving permission to receive shafaat is that a person should not be involved in unbelief and shirk and be a people of tawhid. The other dimension of the shafaat permission given by Allah is related to the intercessor and requires the intercessor to have certain characteristics. According to the Qur’an, those who are allowed to intercede, namely those whose shafaat is acceptable, have some characteristics such as fearing Allah, witnessing the truth, and being united. In the article, after the shafaat in the unity of the Qur’an is discussed, the relationship between shafaat and prayer / istigfar will be examined. What makes us jump to this is a type of prayer, perhaps the most important one, is the relationship of forgiveness with shafaat, the ability of a person seeking forgiveness/forgiveness to do so not only on his own behalf, but also for another believer who is a sinner. As a matter of fact, when the Qur’an is examined, it will be seen that Allah ordered the Prophet to seek forgiveness for believing men and believing women, and the believers’ forgiveness for one another. This is a proof of the legitimacy of shafaat in the sense of prayer and forgiveness. Finally, the relationship between shafaat and means will be discussed in the article. Our starting point in associating the word wasila with shafaat is that the concept of means includes the meaning of mediation, just like the concept of intercession. Accordingly, it will be revealed that shafaat, the existence of which is mentioned in the Qur’an, is one of the manifestations of Allah’s mercy and is related to the concepts of prayer / forgiveness and tawassul both in terms of meaning and nature. Then, the relationship between shafaat prayer, forgiveness and occasion will be discussed. The aim of this article is to examine the verses about the possibility and impossibility of shafaat in the Qur’anic integrity. In the same way, the nature of the shafaat that the Qur’an rejects and approves of will be determined. In this article, a method will be followed in the form of determining the shafaat related to intercession and analysing the relevant verses in terms of context, reason and wording. Also, a method of determining the verses that reject and accept the existence of shafaat in a holistic way and examining the relevant verses in terms of context analysis, reason and wording will be followed by referring to the opinions of commentators.

  • Issue Year: 27/2023
  • Issue No: 1
  • Page Range: 61-75
  • Page Count: 15
  • Language: Turkish