In order to determine the main trends of poetics and artistic thinking of Ilya
Chavchavadze, it is necessary to find out what signs of critical realism are revealed in his
work (the issue of ideas and ideals embodied in the works of Ilya Chavchavadze is thoroughly and thoroughly considered in the Georgian scientific literature. We explore only
the basic principles characteristic of the specific artistic thinking and poetics of representatives of critical realism and, in particular, Ilya Chavchavadze).
One of the fundamental principles suitable for the classification of literary movements was formulated by Roman Jacobson. In particular, according to Jacobson, “it was
often stated that metaphor dominated in schools of romanticism and symbolism, but we
are still not sufficiently aware of the fact that the so-called“ realistic ”direction is dominated by metaphor, and this direction is the middle stage between the decline of romanticism
and the birth of symbolism and opposes both of them. « Thus, Jacobson distinguished
literary trends on the basis of what mode of thinking manifests itself in each of them —
metaphor (synthesis) or metonymy (analysis).
This idea of Jacobson has not found wide application in literary criticism, not
counting several studies, for example, the remarkable “Мегаистория“ by I.P. Smirnov.
The ideas outlined in this book, we used in the analysis of Ilya Chavchavadze’s works.
As a result of the study, it turned out that, contrary to Jacobson›s point of view,
the metonymic, analytical principle prevails in the artistic thinking of Georgian romantic
poets. The question arises: what - metaphorical or metonymic pole of thinking is revealed
in realism and, in particular, in the works of Ilya Chavchavadze?
According to the concept of I.P. Smirnov, a feature of realism is the metaphorical union of objects and phenomena. This property is typical for the works of Ilya
In particular, the expression of the metaphorical principle is that the works of Ilya
Chavchavadze are multifunctional. They combine, on the one hand, artistic, and on the
ilia WavWavaZis poetika: ZiriTadi tendenciebi
other - didactic, political, philosophical and other functions. Accordingly, the accusations
directed against Ilya Chavchavadze due to the fact that they are allegedly of little value
from an artistic point of view are incorrect. But the point is that Ilya Chavchavadze, as a
realist writer, did not set himself the goal of only achieving artistic goals. And since his
works are multifunctional –respectively, they cannot be considered and evaluated using
the same criteria that are used in relation to other writers.
Recognizing the principle of metaphor (synthesis) as the basic principle of artistic
thinking in realism, we can recall that according to one interesting modern theory, the
theory of A. Wierzbicka, there is always a hidden negation in the metaphor. From observations of realistic literature and, in particular, over the artistic texts of Ilya Chavchavadze,
it is clear that this hidden denial is interpreted in them assessed, that is, one of the components of the metaphor is always characterized negatively.
In the poem The Hermit, the cowgirl and the hermit create a metaphorical pair.
The hermit is entirely devoted to his spiritual aspirations, but the cowgirl lives an ordinary
earthly life, which the hermit regards as the kingdom of evil. The path chosen by the hermit is not criticized by the author - a ray of light (on which the hermit can lay his prayer)
is a manifestation of God’s grace to the hermit. Thus, both the hermit and the cowgirl are
good characters. However, in the poem as a realistic work, preference is given to the point
of view of the cowgirl, rather than the hermit (according to the principle: not X, but -Y).
Being a metaphorical couple, they have similar properties - both are attributed to the love
of mortal life, but that character is punished who refuses it. The image of the ray of light is
remarkable, as is the image of the rainbow in The Ghost. The symbol of the welfare of the
people is the seven-colored rainbow, and the symbol of spirituality, the heights of one person is a ray of light. Both the ray and the rainbow are the middle instances between heaven
and earth, between God and man. In The Beggar’s Tale, both of the main characters are
representatives of various social classes of masters and serfs. They are united by longstanding affection for each other. The negative qualities of the hero-master, as well as the
positive qualities of the hero peasant, are due to their social position. Here the metaphorical principle operates - sedation based on the evaluation approach. Of course, among the
gentlemen there were highly moral people, as well as among the peasants - immoral, but
in the concept of Ilya Chavchavadze, as a realist writer, positive properties are attributed
to people engaged in physical labor, or rather, representatives of the social stratum, which
is a mediator between nature and culture.
Based on the foregoing, a conflict between the “fathers” and the “children” can be
considered in a new way.It is well known that this conflict was initiated by an article by
Ilya Chavchavadze and his “Mysteries”
The first (and only) among Georgian scientists, who noted that this conflict had no
basis, was Grigol Kiknadze. After analyzing in detail the history of this conflict, he came
to the conclusion that this conflict had no real basis.
The juxtaposition of «fathers» and «children» and a ten-year sharp controversy
between the old and the new generations would not have arisen if it were not for the iniTamar lomiZe
tiative of Ilya Chavchavadze. Apparently, young Ilya Chavchavadze, whose thinking and
consciousness were determined by the metaphorical principle, divided Georgian society
into two hostile camps (according to the metaphorical principle, which implies the connection of two objects according to the evaluation principle - not x, but y, even when there
is no real basis to oppose them), and he himself gave rise to a conflict between generations
where there was no substantial reason for the conflict and the opposition of two generations of Georgian writers and statesmen.
It seems that even this brief review confirms the metaphorical character of the
world perception and artistic thinking of Ilya Chavchavadze, on the basis of which his
work can be interpreted in a new way