ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ФАКТОРЫ, ВЛИЯЮЩИЕ НА ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ОПТИМАЛЬНОГО КАЧЕСТВА ВНУТРЕННЕЙ СРЕДЫ ОФИСНЫХ ПОМЕЩЕНИЙ
Ecological factors affecting the provision of optimal quality of the indoor environment in office premises.
Subject(s): Anthropology, Architecture, Health and medicine and law, Environmental interactions
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: office space; comfort; environmental friendliness; chemical pollution; physical impacts; healthy building;
Summary/Abstract: In the article the ecological factor which influence on the creation of favorable environment and optimum micro-climate for work and life indoors particularly in the offices are considered. The causes and factors of the emergence of unfavorable conditions for work and health of human being, are found out. The classification of negative indoor factors is adduced. The designation of negative health consequences, caused by negative aforementioned factors, is added as well. In the article author also suggests some ideas how to eliminate these factors and ways how to adapt existing premises to ecological and sanitary requirements.Normal activities are ensured by the optimal combination of existing climatic, physical, chemical and other environmental factors, depending on the level of each factor impact separately on the body. The spaces where a person is staying the whole working day, make the main contribution of the loading on the human organism and affect man’s working capacity. In the air of office premises you can find a huge number of substances (up to 900 connections).The protection from the negative effects of dirty air, noises, electromagnetic radiation is the main task in designing object-spatial environment. Among the most negative environmental indicators of the internal environment are cli-mate, air pollution (chemical and biological), physical impact, air ion deficit, electromagnetic fields, light keeper mode. Microclimate is formed as a result of the external environment impact, the peculiarities of the building, structural system, systems of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. The main factors in the calculation of indoor climate are adaptive and physiological possibilities of the human organism. The neglect of even one of parameters leads to the ab-sence of the desired effect.The recent researches show that the main source of chemical pollution of the internal office environment are toxic substances released from building and materials into the atmosphere of the room. In particular, a significant threat for human health and the environment is the degradation of polymeric materials and plastic products.The most part of all residential and public buildings have a constant air exchange with the external environment, the ecological condition of the internal office environment, closely linked with the environmental situation near the building. It is found out that approximately 30% in the air of substances and chemical compounds penetrate into the room from outside.One of the most important factors affecting the comfort and health of a person in a closed room is an excess of positive ions of air and lack of light negative ions. This is especially actual in areas where you use the plastic and composite materials, with abundance of electronic office equipment in dusty and polluted buildings. According to domestic and foreign scientific thought, negative air ions have a normalizing effect on blood converting ability, many metabolic processes, and other.The harmful physical impacts include acoustic noise, vibration, light regime, electro-magnetic radiation. One of the es-sential factors determining the comfort of staying indoors, is favorable noise mode. The sources of sound pollution in premises (internal noise) are telephone conversations of employees, office equipment, sanitary-engineering, material handling and other technical devices. Sources of ambient noise in rooms can be a construction work near residential buildings and in the main traffic flows (automobile, railway and air), as well as industrial enterprises. Negative affect of the sound may cause irritation, turning into psycho-emotional stress, which can lead to mental and physical pathological changes in the human body.Electromagnetic pollution of populated areas has become so significant that who has included this issue in a number of the most actual life. Currently, there are a lot of different sources of electromagnetic fields located outside residential and public buildings (power lines, stations of satellite communication, radio installation, broadcasting centers, open switching, transport and so on) and indoor (computers, cellular and cordless phones, pagers, household microwave ovens and others) Almost any working place in office is equipped by a computer and other office equipment. In this regard, the technogenic electromagnetic fields in the workplace have increased. The problem is complicated by the fact that most of the structures detained natural geomagnetic field of the earth that is conducive to human health.The AMY solution are the measures for protection and insulation of electric cables, wires, wires with modern designs of floors and ceilings.The light mode is the most important environmental factor influencing human and biota in general, the adaptive processes, phenomena and viability for a person especially valuable biologically full of natural light, as in direct sunlight, or in dispersed form. Adequate lighting leads to enlargement of productivity managerial work, incidence, reduces errors, and increases the accuracy of execution of tasks.In connection with the determination of air quality, reduced its transparency, dense multi-storey buildings cities reduce the access of natural light inside the buildings. A shortage of natural light and ultraviolet radiation lead glass aperture (delay of light in an average of 45%), pollution glasses (delay of light by 50-70%), opposing the building, the windows orientation on the North and etc.
- Issue Year: 1/2014
- Issue No: 4
- Page Range: 112-117
- Page Count: 6
- Language: Russian, Ukrainian